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IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-The only way to improve the safety of our roads is to have stricter punishment for driving offenders. -To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? -Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-The only way to improve the safety of our roads is to have stricter punishment for driving offenders.

-To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?

-Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

 Answer 1:

Recently, a significant number of accidents on the road have been caused by careless drivers. Some people think that giving stricter punishment is the answer to tackling the driving offender problems. However, I'm afraid I have to disagree that it is the only way.

First and foremost, even though the best rules have been established and imposed, it would be useless if drivers have no self-consciousness in following the driving law. For example, there are harsh punishments when drunk driving, but in reality, many road accidents are caused by drunk drivers. Thus, the main focus of this issue is all about the awareness as a driver, not just concerning the punishment.

In addition, a government could help improve road safety by broadcasting the background knowledge of how important it is to drive prudently. It could increase drivers' consciousness about the danger that could happen only because of breaking simple policy, such as the driver might take someone's life by passing the traffic light. Then, the socialization program is probably given in making their driving license card to ensure every driver would receive the information.

Furthermore, private companies, such as IT and transport mode companies, could collaborate with the government to create a "Smart Transportation Mode." The new software will be attached to a car or a bike which can detect the vehicle's speed limit and the level of alcohol in the driver's body and stops when it reaches a specific limit. The other possibility is that the software will turn off the car's or bike's machine if it is too close to different transportation modes or other things. Hence, one of the road accidents like a crash can be prevented.

In conclusion, giving a tightened punishment is a brilliant idea. However, I believe there are other excellent thoughts to boost safety on the road.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Some people believe that all wild animals should be protected. Others say that few wild animals should be protected instead. -Discuss both views and give your opinion. -Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Some people believe that all wild animals should be protected. Others say that few wild animals should be protected instead.

-Discuss both views and give your opinion.

-Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

 Answer 1:

Every year several wild animals are becoming extinct, and the increasing number of endangered species worldwide is an alarming issue for us. Some people believe we should try to save all the wild animals, while others think we should emphasize keeping some selective wild animals.

First, wild animals are part of our ecosystem and share as much as we have on this Earth. Unfortunately, due to humans exploiting and abusing natural resources, many such wild animals are getting wiped out. Since we, human, are the main reasons their existence are in danger, we must protect them. While planning and executing our steps to save wild animals, we should never select some wild animals while letting others die. It is pretty unclear what would be the determining factors for our biassed selection? Many people, in this case, would argue that we should focus on saving wild animals which are fewer in number and have greater chances of extinction, like the Royal Bengal Tigers and Pandas. However, I can't entirely agree. If we take proper steps to save wild animals, that would include any wild animal found around us. For instance, if we can ensure a natural inhabitation of all wild animals and prohibit any actions that might threaten them, it would save all the wild animals.

When saving some selective wild animals, many argue that the geological garden could be a safe place for them. However, the reality is quite contrary. We should not put wild animals in cages and should let them freely live in their natural living place. International organizations like the UN, UNESCO, WWF, Wildlife Alliance, etc., sometimes work on saving endangered animals, but that does not restrict their activities to saving those wild animals only. They have broader plans and several initiatives for keeping all the wildlife animals.

Finally, our won activities like logging trees, increasing use of cars, expanding cities, luxury, rampant hunting of animals, etc., are the main threats to every wild animal in the world, and the time has come for us to step forward stop such activities. Saving every wild animal is a dire need to maintain the natural balance and our well-being.

In conclusion, we should save every wild animal still in the world. However, selecting some wild animals for saving is an idea we should discard as it would bring more devastating effects than positive ones.


IELTS SPEAKING PART 1 Speaking Part 1 1. How often do you drink water?

IELTS SPEAKING PART 1

Speaking Part 1

1. How often do you drink water?

Of course, every single day! Staying hydrated (giving someone water to keep them healthy) is a priority because I get a headache if I don't, not to mention my weight loss goals. So drinking enough water is critical for good health.

2 What kind of water do you like to drink?

All sorts; I'm not too picky (selective)! I drink either tap water through a Brita filter or bottled water on occasion (sometimes). I usually fill my refillable water bottle with water and carry it with me throughout the day.

3. Do you drink bottled water or water from water machines?

Water in a bottle. Because the water in my country is potable (drinkable), I usually use a filter to improve the flavor. However, I buy a water bottle if this isn't an option, though I prefer not to due to environmental concerns.

4 Do you like to play in the water?

Oh my God, I adore it! It's just a lot of fun. On a hot day, jumping in a cold pool is one of the best feelings in the world. It's one of my favorite ways to unwind on a hot summer day.


IELTS SPEAKING PART 1 Speaking Part 1 1 Do you remember your dream when you woke up?

IELTS SPEAKING PART 1

Speaking Part 1

1 Do you remember your dream when you woke up?

No, not at all. When I wake up, I frequently have no memory of my dreams. Instead, I recall disjointed fragments of the invention that make no sense.

2 Do you like hearing others' dreams?

Yes, I suppose. Many people are haunted by their dreams and need to talk about them. Some people are terrified when they see nightmares.

3. Do you think dreams will affect life?

To a certain extent, I believe. What they see in their dreams has an impact on some people. So, for example, if they see death or suffering, they may interpret it as an omen and take precautions such as driving more carefully. So, I guess dreams do influence our actions.

4 Do you want to learn more about dreams?

I have to say no because it is not an area I am particularly interested in. I'm sure dreams can reveal genuinely fascinating things about our brain and cognition, but I'm more of an artist, so I'd instead learn about music or culture than dreams.

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IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Some people think certain prisoners should be made to do unpaid community work instead of being put behind bars. -To what extent do you agree or disagree? -Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Some people think certain prisoners should be made to do unpaid community work instead of being put behind bars.

-To what extent do you agree or disagree?

-Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

 Answer: [Agreement]

Crime has risen above a moderate level in many countries, and incarceration of convicted individuals is standard practice. However, some members of society believe that not all crimes are equal and that the repercussions of a harsh sentence for all offenses are uncivilized. They emphasize the importance of unpaid community service as a punishment for minor offenders and children, and I believe that certain offenders should receive non-custodial sentences.

The main reason I favor community service over prison time, such as cleaning streets, planting trees, and working for a charity, is that many offenders are not born criminals, and circumstances frequently force them to commit a transgression. Furthermore, when such unintentional convicts are expelled from society, they tend to re-offend in isolation because no one accepts them. Aside from that, juvenile delinquents should be rehabilitated through community service. However, a recent study found that many young people who have been in prison for a long time often become even worse criminals.

However, violent offenders who commit heinous crimes such as premeditated murder, vandalism, abduction, hijacking, rapes, and so on should be punished to set an excellent example in society. Thus, a criminal's background and the crime motif should be considered. For example, stealing food from a store because his mother is hungry is entirely different from robbing an elderly lady and violently stabbing her. Therefore, the former should be given another chance, whereas the latter should be imprisoned.

Someone with no previous criminal record and a sensible reason for minor misconduct should be treated differently from a serial killer. The objective of the law is to maintain peace in society, not to punish people. Thus unpaid community service is a great option to let some convicted lament their crime and do something good for the organization.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-It is often said that children are undisciplined because their parents are busy with their careers. -To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion? What could parents do to build a sense of discipline among children? -Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your knowledge or experience. Write at least 250 words.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-It is often said that children are undisciplined because their parents are busy with their careers.

-To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?

What could parents do to build a sense of discipline among children?

-Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

Write at least 250 words.

 Answer: (Agreement)

Developing a sense of discipline among children is an essential responsibility for parents as it determines a child's future and the overall social condition. Unfortunately, many parents can not share quality time with their children due to career pressure, and those couples often fail to teach children moral values. This has undeniably led to some juvenile delinquencies, including disciplinary problems. Therefore, I firmly believe parents should spend more time with their offspring and teach them through examples to reverse this trend.

To begin with, when children, as a whole, in a society, become disruptive, they are not the ones to be blamed. Parents are the first teachers and perhaps the most reliable ones in times of a child's joy and vulnerability, and they have to spend time with their children. Ideal parents teach their children good rules and set examples to meet the expectation of parenthood. Lessons learned from parents shape a child's character, which is why psychologists emphasize so much on good parenting. Career and social status are meaningful but not more than a child's future; this is why parents should maintain a balance in their professional and family life.

Once a child becomes rogue, the parents are the persons to suffer the most. Due to the relationship between upbringing and a child's future, fathers and mothers should instill good moral values in a child early in life, not regret it when it is too late.

To conclude, many parents leave their children on their own only to miss their chance to make them ideal citizens of the society. No matter how alluring the career prospects are, good parents should always share with their boys and girls and teach them important lessons about life, including the importance of discipline.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Currently, there is a trend toward using alternative forms of medicine. However, at best, these methods are ineffective, and at worst, they may be dangerous. -To what extent do you agree with this statement? -Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Currently, there is a trend toward using alternative forms of medicine. However, at best, these methods are ineffective, and at worst, they may be dangerous.

-To what extent do you agree with this statement?

-Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge.

ANSWER

Alternative medicine is not new. It is widely acknowledged that it predates conventional medicine and is still used by many people worldwide. I am not convinced that it is dangerous, and I believe that both alternative and traditional medicine can be beneficial.

There are several reasons why the conventional medical community frequently dismisses alternatives:

Because there has been little scientific research into such medicine, there is scarce evidence to support their supporters' claims.

  1. People frequently try such treatment because of recommendations from friends, and as a result, they come to the therapist with a very positive attitude, which may be part of the cure.
  2. These therapies are usually only beneficial for long-term, chronic conditions.

Acute medical problems, such as accidental injury frequently necessitate more traditional approaches.

On the other hand, there are still compelling reasons to use alternatives. Despite the lack of scientific evidence, there is much anecdotal evidence that these therapies work. Furthermore, they frequently have few or no side effects far from dangerous, so the worst-case scenario is no change. One of the strongest arguments for the effectiveness of alternative therapies in the West is that, while conventional medicine is free, many people are willing to pay a high price for alternatives. It would be surprising if they continued to be unhelpful.

I firmly believe that conventional medicine and alternative therapies can and should coexist. However, they have different strengths and can be used effectively to target particular medical problems. Therefore, the best situation would be for alternative therapies to support and complement conventional medicine.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Some people suggest that a country should try to produce all the food for its population and import as little food as possible. -To what extent do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Some people suggest that a country should try to produce all the food for its population and import as little food as possible.

-To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

 Answer 1: (Agreement)

Providing adequate food for the entire population has been a significant concern for nations throughout history. Some argue that the government should prioritize food production while importing as little as possible to ensure food sufficiency. On the contrary, I am convinced that having a diverse range of foods is an unavoidable effort to safeguard the nation's food security.

To begin with, the greater a country's reliance on imported food, the greater the likelihood of a food crisis. Food import costs include transportation, taxation, and other charges, raising food prices. To address this issue, a government should increase budgets for improving national production by maximizing research center collaboration with farmers. Related university courses and diploma programs can train more talented people to work in domestic food production. A country can also prepare for rainy days by mass-producing various food items.

Secondly, a government can decrease unemployment by focusing on farming, irrigation, and planting. For example, the farming sector in Indonesia creates the highest percentage of jobs. More than 50 percent of Indonesians directly or indirectly depend on agriculture.

Finally, imported food does not have the same quality and freshness as locally produced food and crops. In addition, if food is imported from a long distance, the food value degrades, and in some cases, toxic chemicals are used to preserve the imported food. Thus the local production of foods would ensure better food quality and sound health for citizens.

In conclusion, preventing the food crisis, ensuring better food quality, and decreasing unemployment could be achieved if a country becomes self-sufficient in its food production. Therefore, it is expected that governments would emphasize domestic food production as it gives many competitive advantages over importing.

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IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Differences between countries become less evident each year. Nowadays, all over the world, people share the same fashions, advertising, brands, eating habits, and TV channels. -Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages of this? Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Differences between countries become less evident each year. Nowadays, all over the world, people share the same fashions, advertising, brands, eating habits, and TV channels.

-Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages of this?

Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

Answer 1: (Disadvantages outweigh the advantages)

Many aspects of culture and people's lifestyles are becoming increasingly similar worldwide. Although this trend has some benefits, I agree that the disadvantages are more noteworthy.

On the one hand, the global reach of fashion brands, similar eating habits, and similar cultural traditions have significant advantages. Starbucks, for example, has expanded from a single location in Seattle to over 30,000 locations in over sixty countries. Hundreds of thousands of customers are served cups of coffee in nearly identical stores in New York, London, New Delhi, Melbourne, and Istanbul. As a result of the global business opportunity, many brands can sell their products globally. As a result, people can enjoy diverse nationalities' fashion, food, and other aspects while remaining in their home country. Because of their similar lifestyles, people can form stronger bonds regardless of where they live. As a result, national differences are narrowing, which is beneficial to world peace.

On the other hand, this trend has some striking disadvantages that we should be cautious about. Firstly, the spread of cross-cultural materialistic lifestyles and attitudes makes us less human and more selfish. For example, the role of TV advertisements by global brands, in most cases, is related to the concept of materialism. We are affected by terminal materialism that forces us to buy things for the sake of buying instead of buying for basic needs. Secondly, with the aggressive spread of market economies and communication technology, local cultures and values are in peril. The true identity and culture are in jeopardy with the influence of alien civilizations, and the new generation cares less about their history and tradition.

In conclusion, it seems to me that the drawbacks of globalization and the similar lifestyle of people due to the similar culture in the world far outweigh the few advantages it has.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Nowadays, more and more people decide to have children later in life. What do you think are the reasons for this? Do the advantages of this trend outweigh the disadvantages? -Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Nowadays, more and more people decide to have children later in life. What do you think are the reasons for this? Do the advantages of this trend outweigh the disadvantages?

-Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

 Answer 1: (Advantages outweigh the disadvantages)

Many couples decide to have children after at least a few years of marriage. Career, social changes, rising living costs, and increased life expectancy are some of the primary reasons for this trend, in my opinion. In my opinion, the benefits of having children later in life outweigh the disadvantages.

Many people, including women, are taking their careers seriously. This is possibly why they do not expect to have children soon after marriage. To begin, it is self-evident that, in the face of massive competition, unemployment, and economic crisis, people worldwide are constantly concerned about their careers and salaries. As a result, many people decide to delay having their first child. Secondly, women's empowerment and social changes have altered the old way of life where a woman's sole responsibility was to look after the children. Since many wives are working these days, they decide to take babies after reaching a specific career position.

Furthermore, social belief regarding giving birth to children has changed dramatically. People are more concerned about their living expenses than the number of babies they have, unlike in the past. Finally, enhanced life expectancy has also contributed to this trend as people believe they can wait a little longer to have their first baby.

Undeniably, people who choose to concentrate on their careers and have babies can care for their children better due to excellent jobs and economic freedom. On the other hand, having offspring early in life can escalate parents' expenditures and financial responsibilities. Moreover, they develop psychological issues if they do not spend enough time with children. Thus, by having early children, young parents might put their careers at risk as well as the future of their children. Reversely, having offspring in early life have few advantages. Such parents have new members in their family, and their isolation would be extirpated, and they will become more family-oriented.

In conclusion, despite the pleasure of having a new baby in the early years of marriage, parents who decide to have babies later can focus on their careers, fulfill financial goals, and have sufficient time to spend with the family.


IELTS SPEAKING PART 1 Speaking Part 1 1 Do you like rainy days?

IELTS SPEAKING PART 1

Speaking Part 1

1 Do you like rainy days?

Without a doubt! After a heavy rain, I enjoy the freshness, cool breeze, and petrichor. It's fantastic!

2 What do you do on rainy days?

Rainy days are ideal for watching movies. I've wished to watch a movie or finish some unfinished reading. Of course, films and books will consume my entire day. But now and then, I'd rather spend the day with my pet, teaching it new tricks.

3 Does it rain much in your country? (Where? When?)

It is entirely within the tropical belt and receives a lot of precipitation each year. The northern part, on the other hand, gets the most rainfall. The Western Pacific typhoon season, which can see severe storms lashing the coast from August to November, can also impact this region.

4 Is there any part of your country where it doesn't rain much? (Where?)

I believe the driest place is X, located on the south-central coast. The weather is quite extreme throughout the year, with a lot of wind and a hot and dry atmosphere. There is also no winter here, and the average temperature is significantly higher than in most other parts of the country.

5. Does it rain much in your hometown? Can you remember any time when it rained particularly heavily? (When?)

Of course, yes. About a year ago, we had several days of torrential rain, almost nonstop, and the entire neighborhood flooded. Because the water was up to my knees, traffic came to a complete halt. So, yeah, that was probably the worst time I've ever experienced.

6. Does rain ever affect transportation in your hometown? (How?)

Yes, absolutely. Rain frequently causes severe traffic congestion, especially during a heavy downpour. People should plan on being stuck in traffic for several hours. It could be because vehicles move slower in the rain.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-The widespread use of the Internet has brought many problems. What do you think are the main problems associated with the use of the Internet? What solutions can you suggest? -Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-The widespread use of the Internet has brought many problems. What do you think are the main problems associated with the use of the Internet? What solutions can you suggest?

-Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

Answer 1:

The Internet is a game-changing technology that has altered how people work, interact, and share information. However, the negative consequences must not be overlooked, and these issues are primarily the result of overuse and over-reliance on this technology. This essay will discuss the major problems with Internet technology and possible solutions.

To begin with the issues, widespread Internet use is associated with new and innovative devices such as smartphones and computers, which we replace more frequently than ever before. As a result, we are creating a throwaway society and contributing to producing more hazardous waste daily. Furthermore, many teenagers' digital addictions are fueled by social media, online games, and chat rooms. Apathy, for example, is one of the most severe consequences of excessive Internet use, preventing people from participating in social activities. Besides, people are becoming less socially and physically active due to increased screen time. As a result, our health condition is deteriorating, and our social life is in jeopardy. Finally, our privacy is hanging on an edge, and our security is at risk due to our extensive dependency on the Internet.

After investigating the causes of the problems, it will be easier to offer solutions:

  1. Parents should encourage their children to participate in outdoor activities and restrict their screen time.
  2. We should buy new electronic devices only when this is necessary.
  3. Internet use in schools and workplaces should be monitored.
  4. The young generation should be encouraged to participate in social activities and charity work.
  5. We should make our Internet access more secure and follow the standard security protocol so that hackers and intruders cannot access and gain our personal information like passwords or credit card information.

In conclusion, even though our society is becoming more dependent on the Internet, which can bring severe negative results, we have the solutions to mitigate these problems and enjoy the good side this technology offers us.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Psychological illnesses may not be as apparent as physical disabilities or diseases; nevertheless, they are just as disabling in their way. Society, however, is more accepting of those with physical than psychological illnesses or disabilities. -To what extent do you agree or disagree? -Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Psychological illnesses may not be as apparent as physical disabilities or diseases; nevertheless, they are just as disabling in their way. Society, however, is more accepting of those with physical than psychological illnesses or disabilities.

-To what extent do you agree or disagree?

-Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

Answer [Agreement]

On the other hand, scientific research heavily relies on available data and previous discoveries. Global progress will halt if valuable information and prior findings are not openly shared with academics and researchers. For example, the Internet is arguably the most significant invention of the modern era. We would still live in the pre-internet age if the US military had not shared this technology. Furthermore, confidential information has no value if it is not implemented in the real world, so limiting it is equivalent to slaughtering the potential for progress.

To begin with, the number of general hospitals and specialist doctors and nurses dedicated to treating diseases of our bodies far outnumbers the number of healthcare centers and personnel dedicated to mental complexities. One only has to walk a few blocks to notice a hospital in any city. Unfortunately, this is not the case for clinics that deal with patients' mental health issues. When the World Health Organization clearly outlines the number of patients who require psychotherapists, mental support, and treatment for their psychological intricacies, this is massive discrimination.

Furthermore, social attitudes toward a physically ill child differ from those toward an autistic child. When the parents openly discuss the former's illness, the latter tries to protect their children from being mistreated. This raises serious concerns about moral integrity and social norms regarding people who require special care. Because of the astigmatism of our social and healthcare systems, many cases of mental illness go untreated. When each county increases its budget for research into deadly diseases, there is almost no budget allocation for suicide prevention. For example, the United States devotes the lion's share of its budget to healthcare. There is no separate funding for preventing self-destruction because it is not considered an illness.

To summarise, it is time to abandon the old dogma about psychological problems and recognize that proper treatment for psychosocial patients is as important as treating physically ill people.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Some people think that family life and parents significantly influence children's development, while others consider that external forces play a more critical role in children's life.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Some people think that family life and parents significantly influence children's development, while others consider that external forces play a more critical role in children's life.

-Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

-Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

Answer:

According to many, the influences of parents and family are significant in a child's development. Others, on the other hand, believe that outside factors such as friends, teachers, and the environment significantly influence children's behavior. This essay will discuss both points of view, but in my opinion, the influences of parents and family life are critical for a child's proper development. Nonetheless, environmental and external forces are more beneficial for them to face life and succeed.

To begin with, parents have an enormous influence on their children's development, particularly in shaping a good childhood. This is because parents instill in their children a sense of family, relationship, responsibility, and punctuality, which influences their maturity. According to many psychologists, a child's strong character is developed by their parent's love and attention, whereas a lack of proper parenting often ruins it. Furthermore, children tend to imitate and become more like their parents. This fact, undoubtedly, demonstrates how important it is for a child to have a family and good parenting.

In contrast, to succeed and face life, we must attend school, interact with teachers and neighbors, make friends, face challenges, learn from our surroundings, and gain social experiences. All of these elements play critical roles in the life of a child. Parents protect their children from dangers while real-life experiences teach them how to deal with those dangers. Outside the home, children are exposed to various situations that lead them to how to solve their problems. Furthermore, children learn invaluable skills in school that help them develop a sense of community and everyday life beyond the boundaries of their family.

To summarise, while parents significantly influence their children's attitudes and growth, social interactions and external factors are critical. They cannot be overlooked for a child's overall development and, in my opinion, are even more critical.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Some people think watching sports in one's free time is a waste. -To what extent do you agree or disagree with the statement? -Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Some people think watching sports in one's free time is a waste.

-To what extent do you agree or disagree with the statement?

-Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

 Answer 1: (Neutral opinion- There should be a balance in our leisure activities.)

Sports enthusiasts worldwide enjoy various sports, which has now become one of the most popular leisure activities. However, some argue that it is a waste of time and recommend engaging in outdoor activities instead. I do not believe that watching sports on television is a waste of time. However, there should be a balance between watching sports and participating in other social and recreational activities.

For starters, watching sports is excellent entertainment and relaxation; for many, it is even a passion. Furthermore, watching sports with others is a great way to socialize and strengthen relationships. For example, watching live sports on television has become my country's social and communication event. However, spending hours in front of a television set watching various sports and doing nothing is not recommended.

On the contrary, many people argue that watching sports in their spare time is not a good or healthy activity. This time could be better spent participating in other social movements and skill development programs. People who spend most of their time watching television become isolated and develop unhealthy eating habits. Thus, many believe that watching sports on TV has no significant benefits. They agree that participating in outdoor activities is far healthier and more beneficial.

To conclude, we must maintain a balance in our leisure activities; while enjoying sports is a good way of relaxation and socialization, too much of it can be harmful. Therefore, we must choose various free-time activities, especially outdoor ones, to maintain a healthy lifestyle.

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Cambridge 11 ielts reading TEST 4 passage 3 ‘This Marvellous Invention’ READING with answers READING PASSAGE 3 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below. ‘This Marvellous Invention’

Cambridge 11 ielts reading TEST 4 passage 3

‘This Marvellous Invention’

READING with answers

READING PASSAGE 3

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.

‘This Marvellous Invention’

A

Of all mankind’s manifold creations, language must take pride of place. Other inventions -the wheel, agriculture, sliced bread – may have transformed our material existence, but the advent of language is what made us human. Compared to language, all other inventions pale in significance, since everything we have ever achieved depends on language and originates from it. Without language, we could never have embarked on our ascent to unparalleled power over all other animals, and even over nature itself.

B

But language is foremost not just because it came first. In its own right it is a tool of extraordinary sophistication, yet based on an idea of ingenious simplicity: ‘this marvellous invention of composing out of twenty-five or thirty sounds that infinite variety of expressions which, whilst having in themselves no likeness to what is in our mind, allow us to disclose to others its whole secret, and to make known to those who cannot penetrate it all that we imagine, and all the various stirrings of our soul’ This was how, in 1660, the renowned French grammarians of the Port-Royal abbey near Versailles distilled the essence of language, and no one since has celebrated more eloquently the magnitude of its achievement. Even so, there is just one flaw in all these hymns of praise, for the homage to languages unique accomplishment conceals a simple yet critical incongruity. Language is mankind s greatest invention – except, of course, that it was never invented. This apparent paradox is at the core of our fascination with language, and it holds many of its secrets.

C

Language often seems so skillfully drafted that one can hardly imagine it as anything other than the perfected handiwork of a master craftsman. How else could this instrument make so much out of barely three dozen measly morsels of sound? In themselves, these configurations of mouth p,f,b,v,t,d,k,g,sh,a,e and so on – amount to nothing more than a few haphazard spits and splutters, random noises with no meaning, no ability to express, no power to explain. But run them through the cogs and wheels of the language machine, let it arrange them in some very special orders, and there is nothing that these meaningless streams of air cannot do: from sighing the interminable boredom of existence to unravelling the fundamental order of the universe.

D

The most extraordinary thing about language, however, is that one doesn’t have to be a genius to set its wheels in motion. The language machine allows just about everybody from pre-modern foragers in the subtropical savannah, to post-modern philosophers in the suburban sprawl – to tie these meaningless sounds together into an infinite variety of subtle senses, and all apparently without the slightest exertion. Yet it is precisely this deceptive ease which makes language a victim of its own success, since in everyday life its triumphs are usually taken for granted. The wheels of language run so smoothly that one rarely bothers to stop and think about all the resourcefulness and expertise that must have gone into making it tick. Language conceals art.

E

Often, it is only the estrangement of foreign tongues, with their many exotic and outlandish features, that brings home the wonder of languages design. One of the showiest stunts that some languages can pull off is an ability to build up words of breath-breaking length, and thus express in one word what English takes a whole sentence to say. The Turkish word çehirliliçtiremediklerimizdensiniz, to take one example, means nothing less than ‘you are one of those whom we can’t turn into a town-dweller’. (In case you were wondering, this monstrosity really is one word, not merely many different words squashed together – most ol its components cannot even stand up on their own.)

F

And if that sounds like some one-off freak, then consider Sumerian, the language spoken on the banks of the Euphrates some 5,000 years ago by the people who invented writing and thus enabled the documentation of history. A Sumerian word like munintuma’a (‘when he had made it suitable for her’) might seem rather trim compared to the Turkish colossus above. What is so impressive about it, however, is not its lengthiness but rather the reverse – the thrifty compactness of its construction. The word is made up of different slots, each corresponding to a particular portion of meaning. This sleek design allows single sounds to convey useful information, and in fact even the absence of a sound has been enlisted to express something specific. If you were to ask which bit in the Sumerian word corresponds to the pronoun ‘it’ in the English translation ‘when he had made it suitable for her’, then the answer would have to be nothing. Mind you, a very particular kind of nothing: the nothing that stands in the empty slot in the middle. The technology is so fine-tuned then that even a non-sound, when carefully placed in a particular position, has been invested with a specific function. Who could possibly have come up with such a nifty contraption?

Questions 27-32

Reading Passage 3 has six paragraphs, A-F.

Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-F from the list of headings below.

Write the correct number, i-vii, in boxes 27-32 on your answer sheet.

List of Headings

 Differences between languages highlight their impressiveness

ii  The way in which a few sounds are organised to convey a huge range of meaning

iii  Why the sounds used in different languages are not identical

iv  Apparently incompatible characteristics of language

v  Even silence can be meaningful

vi  Why language is the most important invention of all

vii  The universal ability to use language

27  Paragraph A

28  Paragraph B

29  Paragraph C

30  Paragraph D

31  Paragraph E

32  Paragraph F

Questions 33-36

Complete the summary using the list of words, A-G, below.

Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes 33-36 on your answer sheet.

The importance of language

The wheel is one invention that has had a major impact on 33……………… aspects of life, but no impact has been as 34………………. as that of language. Language is very 35…………………, yet composed of just a small number of sounds.

Language appears to be 36………………… to use. However, its sophistication is often overlooked.

A difficult B complex C original

D admired             E   material  easy

G fundamental

Questions 37-40

Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 3?

In boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet, write

YES    if the statement agrees with the views of the writer

NO    if the statement contradicts the views of the writer

NOTGIVEN    if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

37  Human beings might have achieved their present position without language.

38  The Port-Royal grammarians did justice to the nature of language.

39  A complex idea can be explained more clearly in a sentence than in a single word.

40 The Sumerians were responsible for starting the recording of events.

  Cambridge 11 Test 4 passage 3 Reading Answers

Passage 3

27. vi

28. iv

29. ii

30. vii

31. i

32. v

33. E

34. G

35. B

36. F

37. NO

38. YES

39. NOT GIVEN

40. YES


Cambridge 11 ielts reading TEST 3 passage 3 Preface to ‘How the other half thinks: Adventures in mathematical reasoning’ READING with answers READING PASSAGE 3 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below. Preface to ‘How the other half thinks: Adventures in mathematical reasoning’ A

Cambridge 11 ielts reading TEST 3 passage 3

Preface to ‘How the other half thinks:

Adventures in mathematical reasoning’

READING with answers

READING PASSAGE 3

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.

Preface to ‘How the other half thinks:

Adventures in mathematical reasoning’

A

Occasionally, in some difficult musical compositions, there are beautiful, but easy parts – parts so simple a beginner could play them. So it is with mathematics as well. There are some discoveries in advanced mathematics that do not depend on specialized knowledge, not even on algebra, geometry, or trigonometry. Instead they may involve, at most, a little arithmetic, such as ‘the sum of two odd numbers is even’, and common sense. Each of the eight chapters in this book illustrates this phenomenon. Anyone can understand every step in the reasoning.

The thinking in each chapter uses at most only elementary arithmetic, and sometimes not even that. Thus all readers will have the chance to participate in a mathematical experience, to appreciate the beauty of mathematics, and to become familiar with its logical, yet intuitive, style of thinking.

B

One of my purposes in writing this book is to give readers who haven’t had the opportunity to see and enjoy real mathematics the chance to appreciate the mathematical way of thinking. I want to reveal not only some of the fascinating discoveries, but, more importantly, the reasoning behind them.

In that respect, this book differs from most books on mathematics written for the general public. Some present the lives of colorful mathematicians. Others describe important applications of mathematics. Yet others go into mathematical procedures, but assume that the reader is adept in using algebra.

C

I hope this book will help bridge that notorious gap that separates the two cultures: the humanities and the sciences, or should I say the right brain (intuitive) and the left brain (analytical, numerical). As the chapters will illustrate, mathematics is not restricted to the analytical and numerical; intuition plays a significant role. The alleged gap can be narrowed or completely overcome by anyone, in part because each of us is far from using the full capacity of either side of the brain. To illustrate our human potential, I cite a structural engineer who is an artist, an electrical engineer who is an opera singer, an opera singer who published mathematical research, and a mathematician who publishes short stories.

D

Other scientists have written books to explain their fields to non-scientists, but have necessarily had to omit the mathematics, although it provides the foundation of their theories. The reader must remain a tantalized spectator rather than an involved participant, since the appropriate language for describing the details in much of science is mathematics, whether the subject is expanding universe, subatomic particles, or chromosomes. Though the broad outline of a scientific theory can be sketched intuitively, when a part of the physical universe is finally understood, its description often looks like a page in a mathematics text.

E

Still, the non-mathematical reader can go far in understanding mathematical reasoning. This book presents the details that illustrate the mathematical style of thinking, which involves sustained, step-by-step analysis, experiments, and insights. You will turn these pages much more slowly than when reading a novel or a newspaper. It may help to have a pencil and paper ready to check claims and carry out experiments.

F

As I wrote, I kept in mind two types of readers: those who enjoyed mathematics until they were turned off by an unpleasant episode, usually around fifth grade, and mathematics aficionados, who will find much that is new throughout the book.

This book also serves readers who simply want to sharpen their analytical skills. Many careers, such as law and medicine, require extended, precise analysis. Each chapter offers practice in following a sustained and closely argued line of thought. That mathematics can develop this skill is shown by these two testimonials:

G

A physician wrote, ‘The discipline of analytical thought processes [in mathematics] prepared me extremely well for medical school. In medicine one is faced with a problem which must be thoroughly analyzed before a solution can be found. The process is similar to doing mathematics.’

A lawyer made the same point, “Although I had no background in law – not even one political science course — I did well at one of the best law schools. I attribute much of my success there to having learned, through the study of mathematics, and, in particular, theorems, how to analyze complicated principles. Lawyers who have studied mathematics can master the legal principles in a way that most others cannot.’

I hope you will share my delight in watching as simple, even naive, questions lead to remarkable solutions and purely theoretical discoveries find unanticipated applications.

Questions 27-34

Reading Passage has seven sections, A-G.

Which section contains the following information?

Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes 27-34 on your answer sheet.

NB   You may use any letter more than once.

27  a reference to books that assume a lack of mathematical knowledge

28  the way in which this is not a typical book about mathematics

29  personal examples of being helped by mathematics

30  examples of people who each had abilities that seemed incompatible

31  mention of different focuses of books about mathematics

32  a contrast between reading this book and reading other kinds of publication

33  a claim that the whole of the book is accessible to everybody

34  a reference to different categories of intended readers of this book

Questions 35-40

Complete the sentences below.

Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 35-40 on your answer sheet.

35  Some areas of both music and mathematics are suitable for someone who is a………………

36  It is sometimes possible to understand advanced mathematics using no more than a limited knowledge of………………

37 The writer intends to show that mathematics requires……………… thinking, as well as analytical skills.

38  Some books written by………………. have had to leave out the mathematics that is central to their theories.

39  The writer advises non-mathematical readers to perform………………. while reading

40  A lawyer found that studying………………. helped even more than other areas of mathematics in the study of law.

  Cambridge 11 Test 3 passage 3 Reading Answers

Passage 3

27. D

28. B

29. G

30. C

31. B

32. E

33. A

34. F

35. beginner

36. arithmetic

37. intuitive

38. scientists

39. experiments

40. theorems


Cambridge 11 ielts reading TEST 3 passage 2 Great Migrations READING with answers READING PASSAGE 2 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26 which are based on Reading Passage 2 below. Great Migrations

Cambridge 11 ielts reading TEST 3 passage 2

Great Migrations

READING with answers

READING PASSAGE 2

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26 which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.

Great Migrations

Animal migration, however it is defined, is far more than just the movement of animals. It can loosely be described as travel that takes place at regular intervals – often in an annual cycle – that may involve many members of a species, and is rewarded only after a long journey. It suggests inherited instinct. The biologist Hugh Dingle has identified five characteristics that apply, in varying degrees and combinations, to all migrations. They are prolonged movements that carry animals outside familiar habitats; they tend to be linear, not zigzaggy; they involve special behaviours concerning preparation (such as overfeeding) and arrival; they demand special allocations of energy. And one more: migrating animals maintain an intense attentiveness to the greater mission, which keeps them undistracted by temptations and undeterred by challenges that would turn other animals aside.

An arctic tern, on its 20,000 km flight from the extreme south of South America to the Arctic circle, will take no notice of a nice smelly herring offered from a bird-watcher’s boat along the way. While local gulls will dive voraciously for such handouts, the tern flies on. Why? The arctic tern resists distraction because it is driven at that moment by an instinctive sense of something we humans find admirable: larger purpose. In other words, it is determined to reach its destination. The bird senses that it can eat, rest and mate later. Right now it is totally focused on the journey; its undivided intent is arrival.

Reaching some gravelly coastline in the Arctic, upon which other arctic terns have converged, will serve its larger purpose as shaped by evolution: finding a place, a time, and a set of circumstances in which it can successfully hatch and rear offspring.

But migration is a complex issue, and biologists define it differently, depending in part on what sorts of animals they study. Joe! Berger, of the University of Montana, who works on the American pronghorn and other large terrestrial mammals, prefers what he calls a simple, practical definition suited to his beasts: ‘movements from a seasonal home area away to another home area and back again’. Generally the reason for such seasonal back-and-forth movement is to seek resources that aren’t available within a single area year-round.

But daily vertical movements by zooplankton in the ocean – upward by night to seek food, downward by day to escape predators – can also be considered migration. So can the movement of aphids when, having depleted the young leaves on one food plant, their offspring then fly onward to a different host plant, with no one aphid ever returning to where it started.

Dingle is an evolutionary biologist who studies insects. His definition is more intricate than Berger’s, citing those five features that distinguish migration from other forms of movement. They allow for the fact that, for example, aphids will become sensitive to blue light (from the sky) when it’s time for takeoff on their big journey, and sensitive to yellow light (reflected from tender young leaves) when it’s appropriate to land. Birds will fatten themselves with heavy feeding in advance of a long migrational flight. The value of his definition, Dingle argues, is that it focuses attention on what the phenomenon of wildebeest migration shares with the phenomenon of the aphids, and therefore helps guide researchers towards understanding how evolution has produced them all.

Human behaviour, however, is having a detrimental impact on animal migration. The pronghorn, which resembles an antelope, though they are unrelated, is the fastest land mammal of the New World. One population, which spends the summer in the mountainous Grand Teton National Park of the western USA, follows a narrow route from its summer range in the mountains, across a river, and down onto the plains. Here they wait out the frozen months, feeding mainly on sagebrush blown clear of snow. These pronghorn are notable for the invariance of their migration route and the severity of its constriction at three bottlenecks. If they can’t pass through each of the three during their spring migration, they can’t reach their bounty of summer grazing; if they can’t pass through again in autumn, escaping south onto those windblown plains, they are likely to die trying to overwinter in the deep snow. Pronghorn, dependent on distance vision and speed to keep safe from predators, traverse high, open shoulders of land, where they can see and run. At one of the bottlenecks, forested hills rise to form a V, leaving a corridor of open ground only about 150 metres wide, filled with private homes. Increasing development is leading toward a crisis for the pronghorn, threatening to choke off their passageway.

Conservation scientists, along with some biologists and land managers within the USA’s National Park Service and other agencies, are now working to preserve migrational behaviours, not just species and habitats. A National Forest has recognised the path of the pronghorn, much of which passes across its land, as a protected migration corridor. But neither the Forest Service nor the Park Service can control what happens on private land at a bottleneck. And with certain other migrating species, the challenge is complicated further – by vastly greater distances traversed, more jurisdictions, more borders, more dangers along the way. We will require wisdom and resoluteness to ensure that migrating species can continue their journeying a while longer.

Questions 14-18

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage2?

In boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE               if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE  if the statement contradicts the information

NOTGIVEN    if there is no information on this

14  Local gulls and migrating arctic terns behave in the same way when offered food.

15  Experts’ definitions of migration tend to vary according to their area of study.

16  Very few experts agree that the movement of aphids can be considered migration.

17  Aphids’ journeys are affected by changes in the light that they perceive.

18  Dingles aim is to distinguish between the migratory behaviours of different species.

Questions 19-22

Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-G, below.

Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes 19-22 on your answer sheet.

19  According to Dingle, migratory routes are likely to

20  To prepare for migration, animals are likely to

21  During migration, animals are unlikely to

22  Arctic terns illustrate migrating animals’ ability to

A  be discouraged by difficulties.

B  travel on open land where they can look out for predators.

C  eat more than they need for immediate purposes.

D  be repeated daily.

E  ignore distractions.

F  be governed by the availability of water.

G  follow a straight line.

Questions 23-26

Complete the summary below.

Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 23-26 on your answer sheet.

The migration of pronghorns

Pronghorns rely on their eyesight and 23……………. to avoid predators. One particular population’s summer habitat is a national park, and their winter home is on the 24……………… where they go to avoid the danger presented by the snow at that time of year. However, their route between these two areas contains three 25……………… One problem is the construction of new homes in a narrow 26……………… of land on the pronghorns’ route.

  Cambridge 11 Test 3 passage 2 Reading Answers

Passage 2

14. FALSE

15. TRUE

16. NOT GIVEN

17. TRUE

18. FALSE

19. G

20. C

21. A

22. E

23. speed

24. plains

25. bottlenecks

26. corridor/ passageway

                                    


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Families who send their children to private schools should not be required to pay taxes that support the state education system. -To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? -Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Families who send their children to private schools should not be required to pay taxes that support the state education system.

-To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?

-Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

 Answer: (Disagreement)

Most countries' education systems are primarily supported by the government, whereas private schools are costly because private organizations run them. As a result, some argue that parents who send their children to private schools should not be required to pay state education taxes. I'm afraid I must disagree with this proposed policy.

First and foremost, the government does not compel parents to send their children to private schools. When parents send their children to private schools, they do so willingly. From a practical standpoint, wealthy citizens send their children to private schools and pay higher taxes. The government would struggle to manage the state-supported education system if they did not support it. Furthermore, a double standard in taxation would spark public outrage. Second, to fulfill their responsibilities to the country, all citizens should pay the education tax on their initiative. Tax money is used to run the country's education system, so taxpayers have a natural obligation to contribute to the state-run education system.

Finally, not all citizens utilize the services provided to the public by the taxpayers' money. For instance, many city-dwellers always turn to private health care services despite paying taxes for state-owned medical facilities. Moreover, a dual tax policy for individuals who send their offspring to a private school would deteriorate the whole tax collecting system.

In conclusion, I strongly support that every eligible citizen should pay the tax no matter whether they send their children to public or private schools. This is the best way to keep education free for poor parents and affordable for middle-class people.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Over-fishing has become a widespread practice in many countries. What do you think are the effects of over-fishing? -Use your knowledge and experience and support your arguments with examples and relevant evidence.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Over-fishing has become a widespread practice in many countries. What do you think are the effects of over-fishing?

-Use your knowledge and experience and support your arguments with examples and relevant evidence.

Sample Answer:

The fish population in seas, lakes, and rivers is falling sharply, and over-fishing is the main reason. Many Asian and European countries had plenty of fish species, but many fish species have become numbered these days. Overall, this has terrible impacts. Without strict laws to stop uncontrolled fishing while investing money in improving fishes' natural habitats, we will bear significant losses.

In many parts of the world, fish are caught early and do not get time to grow and reproduce. Without the government's initiatives and sound policy, the condition will deteriorate as the greedy fishers would not spare fish from their nets. Consequently, marine life would lose balance, and many fish species would go extinct. Therefore, the government must have robust surveillance to stop catching baby fish to prevent it.

Due to over-fishing, many popular fish species have become very expensive and rare. For instance, Hilsha, the national fish of Bangladesh, faces an acute threat of over-fishing and has become numbered. This has a negative economic impact as the country used to export this fish to many western countries. Besides, due to the exhaustive and indiscriminating fishing, many rivers, lakes, and canals are void of fish, and more anglers find it hard to live by fishing. Many governments have already taken steps by declaring many rivers, sea areas, and canals restricted and marking commercial fishing prohibited in certain seasons, making the livelihood of many fishermen even harder.

In conclusion, over-fishing must be stopped now, and the government must decide to bring changes to save fish species. Besides, the population who live fishing must also fish prudently and always spare the baby and mother fish for their benefit.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Parents must attend a parenting training course to bring their children up. -To what extent do you agree or disagree? -Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Parents must attend a parenting training course to bring their children up.

-To what extent do you agree or disagree?

-Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

Answer 1: (Agreement)

Parenting is perhaps the most important responsibility, and mistakes and poor decisions as parents can ruin a family and a child's future. Because many young people are becoming parents and the number of nuclear families is increasing, many experts stress the importance of parenting classes for fathers and mothers. This is something I agree with because such sessions would be beneficial.

To begin with, proper parenting necessitates a significant amount of knowledge and dedication. Minor mistakes and a lack of knowledge can sometimes have disastrous consequences. For example, if overworked parents fail to vaccinate their newborn, the child's life is jeopardized. Similarly, many parents believe in ridiculous superstitions that influence their children to make poor decisions. Those parents will benefit significantly if they attend a course where experts share their perspectives on various aspects of child fostering and proper parenting. For example, my cousin Paula, who recently became a mother, believed her child had digestive issues and required medical attention. However, it was discovered that how she fed her daughter was incorrect. 

Moreover, the increasing trends of single parents and nuclear families lack the expert opinion of the grandparents, unlike in the past. This is why the need for such parenting sessions has risen even more. Such sessions bring parents together, let them share their views, form a social relationship, and help people learn the facts about their prejudices. This is a great way to educate the "to-be-parents" and "newly-become-parents" to understand more about the practical aspects of parenting. It also makes a better society in a broader sense.

To conclude, being informed and educated parents are essential for becoming good parents. Furthermore, since parenting courses diversely help people, it is a good idea for people to participate in such classes.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-It is often said that children are undisciplined because their parents are busy with their careers. -To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion? What could parents do to build a sense of discipline among children? -Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your knowledge or experience. Write at least 250 words.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-It is often said that children are undisciplined because their parents are busy with their careers.

-To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?

What could parents do to build a sense of discipline among children?

-Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

Write at least 250 words.

 Answer: (Agreement)

Developing a sense of discipline among children is an essential responsibility for parents as it determines a child's future and the overall social condition. Unfortunately, many parents can not share quality time with their children due to career pressure, and those couples often fail to teach children moral values. This has undeniably led to some juvenile delinquencies, including disciplinary problems. Therefore, I firmly believe parents should spend more time with their offspring and teach them through examples to reverse this trend.

To begin with, when children, as a whole, in a society, become disruptive, they are not the ones to be blamed. Parents are the first teachers and perhaps the most reliable ones in times of a child's joy and vulnerability, and they have to spend time with their children. Ideal parents teach their children good rules and set examples to meet the expectation of parenthood. Lessons learned from parents shape a child's character, which is why psychologists emphasize so much on good parenting. Career and social status are meaningful but not more than a child's future; this is why parents should maintain a balance in their professional and family life.

Once a child becomes rogue, the parents are the persons to suffer the most. Due to the relationship between upbringing and a child's future, fathers and mothers should instill good moral values in a child early in life, not regret it when it is too late.

To conclude, many parents leave their children on their own only to miss their chance to make them ideal citizens of the society. No matter how alluring the career prospects are, good parents should always share with their boys and girls and teach them important lessons about life, including the importance of discipline.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Buying things on the Internet, such as books, air tickets, and groceries, is becoming increasingly popular. -Do the advantages of shopping in this way outweigh the disadvantages? -Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Buying things on the Internet, such as books, air tickets, and groceries, is becoming increasingly popular.

-Do the advantages of shopping in this way outweigh the disadvantages?

-Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

Answer:

E-commerce has changed the way people do business, buy products, and receive services. With billions of Internet users, online shopping is no longer a theory but a reality, and it has significantly altered people's lifestyles and purchasing habits. Except for a few drawbacks, online shopping has numerous advantages, and it will continue to dominate global business in the coming years to make people's lives easier.

To begin with, online shopping allows customers to obtain a service or a product from the comfort of their own homes. They no longer have to travel long distances, stand in long lines to pay their bills, or withdraw cash. With the widespread use of hand-held smart devices and the Internet, shopping is just a few finger taps away. This saves valuable time and allows people to use more secure plastic cards. Furthermore, online banking, ticket booking systems, e-payment, and online subscriptions help the general public avoid traffic congestion and contribute to the preservation of the environment. From the perspective of a business owner, online shopping allows them to operate 24 hours a day, seven days a week, without the need for additional staff, utility bills, and so on.

Furthermore, consumers have the freedom to purchase global products from well-known websites such as eBay and Amazon, as well as compare the quality and price of a product before making a purchase. The most visible benefit of this trend is the unprecedented opportunity it has provided for ordinary people to open online shops and run small businesses. This would not have been possible without the growth of online business trends.

Identity theft and digital scams are more common disadvantages of online shopping. Furthermore, careless use of a credit card or sensitive personal information can frequently invite intruders and hackers to cause harm. Finally, online shopping does not allow for the physical inspection of a product before purchase, often leading to customer dissatisfaction. However, being cautious and relying on reputable brands can easily avoid these drawbacks.

To summarise, the numerous advantages of online shopping far outweigh the few drawbacks. I am an online shopper, and I believe that this has dramatically increased our shopping and lifestyle freedom.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Schools are spending more time teaching traditional subjects such as history. However, some people think they should rather spend more time learning skills to help students find a job. To what extent do you agree or disagree? -Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Schools are spending more time teaching traditional subjects such as history. However, some people think they should rather spend more time learning skills to help students find a job. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

-Give reasons for your answer and include relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

Answer 

School curriculums may vary from school to school, but their primary objective is the same everywhere, which is to educate and enlighten students. However, some claim schools should focus more on job-oriented subjects rather than teaching traditional ones like arts and history. I'm afraid I have to disagree with this view and believe that conventional issues are as crucial as skill-oriented subjects.

To begin with, 'job-oriented subject' is itself an inexplicit term. For example, some say that subjects that enhance practical skills like computing or gardening are job-oriented. Still, no one can assure that all students in a class will become computer engineers and specialists in planting and gardening. That is why forcing pupils to study subjects they do not feel interested in would bring negative results.

Furthermore, schools are meant to nurture young students' creativity and foster their talent to let them explore their true potential. From this perspective, imposing job-related subjects is like killing the inner soul of the future generation. Finally, if schools can bring diversity among students and inform them about different life perspectives, the students would themselves choose their careers and transcend in the future. So there is no need to create an automatic generation with a particular skill only.

Arts and history are as important as any science and technical subjects. Studying history empowers us to be prepared for the future and learn from our past mistakes. Similarly, arts and other traditional issues allow us to know to appreciate life. We revere Van Gauge and Leonardo da Vinci as much as we admire Sir Isaac Newton and Einstein. The world needs great artists and historians, no less than scientists and technicians.

To conclude, schools should equally focus on traditional and skill-oriented subjects and nurture students' hidden potential to prepare the future generation to become leaders, not corporate enslaved people.

.


IELTS SPEAKING PART 1 Speaking Part 1 1 Are you studying or working?

IELTS SPEAKING PART 1

Speaking Part 1

1 Are you studying or working?

I'm currently a senior at X University, one of the nation's top schools. Admission is incredibly competitive, so I'm very proud of being a student here.

2 What are you studying?

I'm majoring in Accountancy, so as you can guess, I deal a lot with numbers and figures day in and day out. It can be overwhelming at times, but I think that I have a knack for mathematics and calculations, so it's okay.

3. Why did you choose to study that major?

There are many reasons for my choice. Primarily, I have an interest in Accountancy. Another reason could be Accountancy itself since I've found that my personality has changed positively. I've become more patient and skillful.

4 What's the most challenging part of your study?

For the most part, I'd say it's the workload. Students are constantly under pressure to meet deadlines because there are so many assignments. But on the other hand, exams are a piece of cake. They are entirely predictable, and I can breeze through them with a bit of revision.

5 What do you like most about your school?

I guess the aspect I find most enjoyable is the environment. I get to study in English-speaking classrooms, and the facilities are top-notch; all the classrooms are air-conditioned and equipped with projectors. In addition, my friends and teachers are all adorable, so, all in all, it's a great place to study.


IELTS SPEAKING PART 1 Do you like to watch sports on TV?

IELTS SPEAKING PART 1

 Do you like to watch sports on TV?

Not! I wouldn't call it a favorite. I become extremely bored and disinterested. I usually avoid watching sports on TV unless it's a big event like the World Cup or the Super Bowl. In that case, I prefer the social event to the game itself.

2. Do you play any sports?

Not any longer. I used to be an avid swimmer as a child, but I stopped after high school because it was too time-consuming. So instead, I enjoy going to the gym, running around my neighborhood lake, and going on mountain hikes. I'm not sure if these are sports, but I enjoy being physically active.

3 Which is the most famous sport in your country?

Of course, soccer! That would be number one because soccer is the most popular sport globally. When our team wins a game, people go crazy; they even drive around waving flags and closing down streets! Aside from that, many people enjoy tennis and martial arts.

4Who is your favorite sports star?

I'm not a big sports fan, but I don't have a favorite team. Cristiano Ronaldo, on the other hand, I might like. Despite knowing nothing about him or his athletic abilities, I believe I've always been drawn to him because of his appearance.

5 What kinds of sports would you like to try in the future?

I'm intrigued by soccer. I think it can connect people and is good cardiovascular and coordination activity. I wish I had gotten into it as a child. I think it would be interesting to join a league in my city.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-We must maintain and protect the beautiful building of the past, even if it is expensive for countries. -Do you agree with this statement? -Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-We must maintain and protect the beautiful building of the past, even if it is expensive for countries.

-Do you agree with this statement?

-Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

Answer: [Agreement]

Historical buildings are valuable treasures for a country and should be preserved even if the government needs to spend hefty amounts on them. I completely agree with this viewpoint, and my position is outlined in this essay.

First and foremost, historical and traditional structures are of great architectural significance. Their exquisite design attracts tourists and locals and is uncommon in modern systems. These historical structures also teach us about the glorious past. The Roman Colosseum in Rome, for example, demonstrates how awe-inspiring ancient architectures were, with a massive arena used as a stadium for gladiator fighting and space for around 50,000 spectators in tiered seating. This structure primarily represents Roman culture and civilization, which modern historians highly value.

In addition, historical monuments serve as tourist draws in many countries. In today's world, many people plan vacations to historical sites because they want to learn more about the culture and traditions of the past. Many nations benefit from these tourists, and as a result, their tourism industries are thriving. For example, millions of international tourists visit the Taj Mahal in India every year. This generates a substantial profit for the government and employs many locals, assisting financially.

I believe it is worth spending money on ancient buildings as they possess historical importance and are a financial kernel for many governments.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Should education and healthcare be free of charge and funded by the government, or should it be the responsibility of the people to pay for these services? -Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Should education and healthcare be free of charge and funded by the government, or should it be the responsibility of the people to pay for these services?

-Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

Sample Answer 1: [The expenditure should be divided.]

It is undeniable that a country's growth is heavily influenced by how educated and healthy its citizens are. Unfortunately, the burgeoning population and a lack of funds frequently make it difficult for the authority to meet their needs, particularly education, housing, and treatment. I believe that dividing expenditures between the government and individuals would be an effective solution.

To begin with, education is now critical to the development of a society. It creates job opportunities and raises public awareness of its socioeconomic issues. In addition, making education accessible until the age of 18 encourages students to complete at least their secondary education. For example, in my country, the percentage of students enrolled in schools in 2011 increased by 19% over 2009 because the government waived fees for students in these classes.

Furthermore, the healthcare system can be improved by providing health insurance or schemes covering at least half of the cost. As a result, people would not perceive healthcare to be expensive, and the government would not be required to bear the costs alone. Furthermore, a healthier nation can help the country reach greater heights because its citizens are more productive. As a result, economic growth will be boosted, and the government will be able to become self-sufficient.

To conclude, with the implementation of the said measures, there would be no burden on either the government or individuals. Both the government and individuals can go hand in hand to cope with this and build an enlightened and healthy nation.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Some people believe that sharing as much information as possible in scientific research, business, and the academic world is good. However, others believe that some information is too significant or valuable to share freely. -Discuss both these views and give your own opinion. -Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Some people believe that sharing as much information as possible in scientific research, business, and the academic world is good. However, others believe that some information is too significant or valuable to share freely.

-Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

-Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

Answer:

Many people believe that restricting information for inadequate public security and national importance is irrational in this age of "freedom of speech and democracy." In contrast, others think that information should be available only when the authority deems them suitable for access. Both parties have valid arguments, and I believe that if all information is made available to them, scientific studies, academic institutions, and businesses will benefit significantly.

To begin with, sensitive information that could compromise state security, spark public outrage, hand over technologies to terrorists, or facilitate corporate monopoly in the trade sector should be scrutinized before being made public. To maintain global peace in this digital age, information spreads like wildfire. As a result, many believe it should be limited. For example, suppose nuclear technology is shared with all nations for scientific research. In that case, the world will soon be on the verge of obliteration, despite the technology's incredible potential to benefit citizens.

On the other hand, scientific research heavily relies on available data and previous discoveries. Global progress will halt if valuable information and prior findings are not openly shared with academics and researchers. For example, the Internet is arguably the most significant invention of the modern era. We would still live in the pre-internet age if the US military had not shared this technology. Furthermore, confidential information has no value if it is not implemented in the real world, so limiting it is equivalent to slaughtering the potential for progress. Finally, world history suggests that the human race has advanced due to discoveries and inventions shared with the world as each finding went through profound modification and advancement. Thus, I favour the ideology that supports "free information for all."

In conclusion, information has limited value when curbed and not shared with great minds. Therefore, restrictions on valuable information should be debarred for global progress and let people know the truth instead of keeping them in the dark.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Psychological illnesses may not be as apparent as physical disabilities or diseases; nevertheless, they are just as disabling in their way. Society, however, is more accepting of those with physical than psychological illnesses or disabilities. -To what extent do you agree or disagree?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Psychological illnesses may not be as apparent as physical disabilities or diseases; nevertheless, they are just as disabling in their way. Society, however, is more accepting of those with physical than psychological illnesses or disabilities.

-To what extent do you agree or disagree?

-Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

Answer [Agreement]

On the other hand, scientific research heavily relies on available data and previous discoveries. Global progress will halt if valuable information and prior findings are not openly shared with academics and researchers. For example, the Internet is arguably the most significant invention of the modern era. We would still live in the pre-internet age if the US military had not shared this technology. Furthermore, confidential information has no value if it is not implemented in the real world, so limiting it is equivalent to slaughtering the potential for progress.

To begin with, the number of general hospitals and specialist doctors and nurses dedicated to treating diseases of our bodies far outnumbers the number of healthcare centers and personnel dedicated to mental complexities. One only has to walk a few blocks to notice a hospital in any city. Unfortunately, this is not the case for clinics that deal with patients' mental health issues. When the World Health Organization clearly outlines the number of patients who require psychotherapists, mental support, and treatment for their psychological intricacies, this is massive discrimination.

Furthermore, social attitudes toward a physically ill child differ from those toward an autistic child. When the parents openly discuss the former's illness, the latter tries to protect their children from being mistreated. This raises serious concerns about moral integrity and social norms regarding people who require special care. Because of the astigmatism of our social and healthcare systems, many cases of mental illness go untreated. When each county increases its budget for research into deadly diseases, there is almost no budget allocation for suicide prevention. For example, the United States devotes the lion's share of its budget to healthcare. There is no separate funding for preventing self-destruction because it is not considered an illness.

To summarise, it is time to abandon the old dogma about psychological problems and recognize that proper treatment for psychosocial patients is as important as treating physically ill people.



Cambridge 11 ielts reading TEST 4 passage 3 ‘This Marvellous Invention’ READING with answers READING PASSAGE 3 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below. ‘This Marvellous Invention’

Cambridge 11 ielts reading TEST 4 passage 3

‘This Marvellous Invention’

READING with answers

READING PASSAGE 3

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.

‘This Marvellous Invention’

A

Of all mankind’s manifold creations, language must take pride of place. Other inventions -the wheel, agriculture, sliced bread – may have transformed our material existence, but the advent of language is what made us human. Compared to language, all other inventions pale in significance, since everything we have ever achieved depends on language and originates from it. Without language, we could never have embarked on our ascent to unparalleled power over all other animals, and even over nature itself.

B

But language is foremost not just because it came first. In its own right it is a tool of extraordinary sophistication, yet based on an idea of ingenious simplicity: ‘this marvellous invention of composing out of twenty-five or thirty sounds that infinite variety of expressions which, whilst having in themselves no likeness to what is in our mind, allow us to disclose to others its whole secret, and to make known to those who cannot penetrate it all that we imagine, and all the various stirrings of our soul’ This was how, in 1660, the renowned French grammarians of the Port-Royal abbey near Versailles distilled the essence of language, and no one since has celebrated more eloquently the magnitude of its achievement. Even so, there is just one flaw in all these hymns of praise, for the homage to languages unique accomplishment conceals a simple yet critical incongruity. Language is mankind s greatest invention – except, of course, that it was never invented. This apparent paradox is at the core of our fascination with language, and it holds many of its secrets.

C

Language often seems so skillfully drafted that one can hardly imagine it as anything other than the perfected handiwork of a master craftsman. How else could this instrument make so much out of barely three dozen measly morsels of sound? In themselves, these configurations of mouth p,f,b,v,t,d,k,g,sh,a,e and so on – amount to nothing more than a few haphazard spits and splutters, random noises with no meaning, no ability to express, no power to explain. But run them through the cogs and wheels of the language machine, let it arrange them in some very special orders, and there is nothing that these meaningless streams of air cannot do: from sighing the interminable boredom of existence to unravelling the fundamental order of the universe.

D

The most extraordinary thing about language, however, is that one doesn’t have to be a genius to set its wheels in motion. The language machine allows just about everybody from pre-modern foragers in the subtropical savannah, to post-modern philosophers in the suburban sprawl – to tie these meaningless sounds together into an infinite variety of subtle senses, and all apparently without the slightest exertion. Yet it is precisely this deceptive ease which makes language a victim of its own success, since in everyday life its triumphs are usually taken for granted. The wheels of language run so smoothly that one rarely bothers to stop and think about all the resourcefulness and expertise that must have gone into making it tick. Language conceals art.

E

Often, it is only the estrangement of foreign tongues, with their many exotic and outlandish features, that brings home the wonder of languages design. One of the showiest stunts that some languages can pull off is an ability to build up words of breath-breaking length, and thus express in one word what English takes a whole sentence to say. The Turkish word çehirliliçtiremediklerimizdensiniz, to take one example, means nothing less than ‘you are one of those whom we can’t turn into a town-dweller’. (In case you were wondering, this monstrosity really is one word, not merely many different words squashed together – most ol its components cannot even stand up on their own.)

F

And if that sounds like some one-off freak, then consider Sumerian, the language spoken on the banks of the Euphrates some 5,000 years ago by the people who invented writing and thus enabled the documentation of history. A Sumerian word like munintuma’a (‘when he had made it suitable for her’) might seem rather trim compared to the Turkish colossus above. What is so impressive about it, however, is not its lengthiness but rather the reverse – the thrifty compactness of its construction. The word is made up of different slots, each corresponding to a particular portion of meaning. This sleek design allows single sounds to convey useful information, and in fact even the absence of a sound has been enlisted to express something specific. If you were to ask which bit in the Sumerian word corresponds to the pronoun ‘it’ in the English translation ‘when he had made it suitable for her’, then the answer would have to be nothing. Mind you, a very particular kind of nothing: the nothing that stands in the empty slot in the middle. The technology is so fine-tuned then that even a non-sound, when carefully placed in a particular position, has been invested with a specific function. Who could possibly have come up with such a nifty contraption?

Questions 27-32

Reading Passage 3 has six paragraphs, A-F.

Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-F from the list of headings below.

Write the correct number, i-vii, in boxes 27-32 on your answer sheet.

List of Headings

 Differences between languages highlight their impressiveness

ii  The way in which a few sounds are organised to convey a huge range of meaning

iii  Why the sounds used in different languages are not identical

iv  Apparently incompatible characteristics of language

v  Even silence can be meaningful

vi  Why language is the most important invention of all

vii  The universal ability to use language

27  Paragraph A

28  Paragraph B

29  Paragraph C

30  Paragraph D

31  Paragraph E

32  Paragraph F

Questions 33-36

Complete the summary using the list of words, A-G, below.

Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes 33-36 on your answer sheet.

The importance of language

The wheel is one invention that has had a major impact on 33……………… aspects of life, but no impact has been as 34………………. as that of language. Language is very 35…………………, yet composed of just a small number of sounds.

Language appears to be 36………………… to use. However, its sophistication is often overlooked.

A difficult B complex C original

D admired             E   material  easy

G fundamental

Questions 37-40

Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 3?

In boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet, write

YES    if the statement agrees with the views of the writer

NO    if the statement contradicts the views of the writer

NOTGIVEN    if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

37  Human beings might have achieved their present position without language.

38  The Port-Royal grammarians did justice to the nature of language.

39  A complex idea can be explained more clearly in a sentence than in a single word.

40 The Sumerians were responsible for starting the recording of events.

  Cambridge 11 Test 4 passage 3 Reading Answers

Passage 3

27. vi

28. iv

29. ii

30. vii

31. i

32. v

33. E

34. G

35. B

36. F

37. NO

38. YES

39. NOT GIVEN

40. YES


IELTS SPEAKING PART 1 Speaking Part 1 1 What natural sound(s) do you like (the most)? (Why?)

IELTS SPEAKING PART 1

Speaking Part 1

1 What natural sound(s) do you like (the most)? (Why?)

That's an intriguing question. I'm a morning person, and nothing soothes me more than the sound of birds chirping (the noise birds make) in the morning. That sound is so fresh and innocent to me, and it immediately puts me at ease. Even though I now live in a big city, it transports me back to my childhood in the country.

2 What sounds remind you of your childhood?

I'd describe it as the sound of '90s pop music. My family was huge music fans, so we would always drive around my small town blasting 90's pop (at total volume), including Britney Spears, Counting Crows, Nsync, and others. Although this was not my parents' favorite music, they would always play it for my sister and me. As a result, we have many family memories of singing along to these memorable (a song you remember) hits. As a result, I consider these songs to be my childhood soundtrack (movie pieces).

3 What sounds do you dislike? (Why?)

The sound of honking horns is my biggest pet peeve (something that irritates you). They irritate me! This noise is almost unbearable (impossible to tolerate), owing to its loud, unexpected (unexpected) sound, which immediately disturbs my peace. Furthermore, it is usually the sound of a frustrated or angry driver which adds to the annoyance.

4 Does your school have any quiet places for studying?

Because my university's library strictly enforces (makes you follow the laws exactly) the silence policy, it creates a quiet, tranquil environment for students to study in peace. Although she can be a pain (annoying) at times, I appreciate that Ms. Schauerman takes her job seriously. If someone speaks, she will walk over and say, "hush! It's a library! "in a stern (sharp and severe) tone of voice Furthermore, the library is outfitted with beanbags, desks, a computer lab, and conference-style desks, making it a pleasant place to work.

5 What (kinds of) music do you like the most?

That's a difficult question because I enjoy a wide range of music, but I'd have to say (decide) 90's music. I prefer this type of music because it makes me nostalgic (I miss the past). After all, I was born in the 1990s (someone born in the 1990s). I prefer pop, alternative, and punk rock music from the last decade. I believe I am most fond of (really like) this era (period) because of the music's light-hearted (not deep or sad meaning), easy-listening style.

6 What are some places where there is a lot of noise?

It's nearly impossible for me to escape the noise because I come from a bustling (busy) city. Street vendors, honking horns, motorbikes, barking dogs, and construction sites continuously fill the streets. The old town is the noisiest part of the city, as it has a higher concentration (high numbers in one area) of street sellers, more new construction projects, and more traffic passing through, as it is the liveliest part of the city.

7 What type of noise do you come across in your daily life?

What a commotion (mix of sounds)! It ranges from screaming matches (fights) between partners and families in my apartment to street vendors shouting out their wares for all to hear, motorbikes speeding by, and blaring horns. The sound of horns is the one that most defines my city. Horns are natural to fill the streets, given the city's heavy traffic and lack of clearly defined lanes.

8 Do you mind noises? (Do any noises bother you?)

Because I'm a light sleeper (I wake up quickly), the noises around me irritate me. The sound of a barking dog, on the other hand, is the most aggravating (annoying). It's just so shrill (it gets stuck in your head)! It's alarming and makes it difficult for me to concentrate on anything else. Furthermore, it saddens me to hear that a dog is in such distress that it must bark in such away.



IELTS SPEAKING PART 1 Speaking Part 1 1According to you, are you a polite person?

IELTS SPEAKING PART 1

Speaking Part 1

1According to you, are you a polite person?

I believe I am a courteous person. I treat others with respect and patience and never insult anyone unless they truly deserve it. I also correctly apologize when I make mistakes and express my gratitude when others assist me.

2Do you think people should be polite? Why is being polite important?

People should always be polite because it demonstrates good manners and helps them earn the respect of others. Furthermore, being polite is similar to having good social skills in that it can help one expand their social network, which can positively influence one's personal and professional life.

3How do people in your culture show good manners towards others?

When a junior appropriately greets a senior and speaks to them politely with sufficient and correct honorifics, they display good manners. On the other hand, politeness is evident during a meal, when people must wish each other a good dinner. The younger generation must wait for the older generation to finish before cleaning the table.

4Have there been any changes in politeness in the past few decades?

I've always thought that people become less and less polite to one another as time passes. Perhaps one of the reasons is that etiquette and codes of conduct have evolved. For example, in the past, it was necessary to behave according to one's social class, and those of a lower rank had to obey those of a higher level. But in today's society, you have to work hard to earn someone's respect.

5Who taught you to be polite?

My friends taught me how to be courteous. When I was a kid, I wasn't a particularly nice person, and my parents frequently chastised me for being disrespectful to elders. Then, one day, I noticed one of my friends speaking nicely and politely to a senior. She was praised, so I began to imitate her. My parents were astounded when I changed my attitude, and they rewarded me with candy for "being a good kid." Since then, I've tried to be courteous to everyone.


IELTS SPEAKING PART 1 Speaking Part 1 1 Do you remember your dream when you woke up?

IELTS SPEAKING PART 1

Speaking Part 1

1 Do you remember your dream when you woke up?

No, not at all. When I wake up, I frequently have no memory of my dreams. Instead, I recall disjointed fragments of the invention that make no sense.

2 Do you like hearing others' dreams?

Yes, I suppose. Many people are haunted by their dreams and need to talk about them. Some people are terrified when they see nightmares.

3. Do you think dreams will affect life?

To a certain extent, I believe. What they see in their dreams has an impact on some people. So, for example, if they see death or suffering, they may interpret it as an omen and take precautions such as driving more carefully. So, I guess dreams do influence our actions.

4 Do you want to learn more about dreams?

I have to say no because it is not an area I am particularly interested in. I'm sure dreams can reveal genuinely fascinating things about our brain and cognition, but I'm more of an artist, so I'd instead learn about music or culture than dreams.

.


IELTS SPEAKING PART 1 SPEAKING PART Do you like any teachers of yours?

IELTS SPEAKING PART 1

SPEAKING PART 

Do you like any teachers of yours?

There were a few teachers in particular who I admired. First, I will tell you about Mrs. Burrier, my high school PE teacher. Because she knew I was painfully shy and clumsy (I easily trip or fall) in gym class, she let me do the dance routine assigned to us in a private room only before her, saving me any potential embarrassment. It was greatly appreciated!

2Do you still keep in touch with your teacher?

I've lost touch with all of my elementary and middle school teachers, but I maintain contact with a couple of university professors. It was easier to get to know university professors because they could have more of a relationship with students. Every year, my Spanish professor and I message back and forth to catch up.

3Do you want to be a teacher?

I don't think I'd be good at teaching because I'm not patient. Furthermore, I dread (do not look forward to) standing in front of the classroom to get the children's attention while they play (play). I believe it takes a particular person to be a teacher, and unfortunately, I do not fit the bill!

4Do you remember your fav teacher from primary school?

Certainly! Ms. Puleo, my second-grade teacher, will be mentioned. Even with us little rascals, she was always kind, encouraging, and patient (slang for kids). I always felt a sense of warmth in her classroom, which the students appreciated. More teachers like her are needed in the world.

5Did you pretend to be a teacher in childhood?

Oh yes! I remember playing teacher with a small chalkboard my friend had at her house. I used to think it was so entertaining to be the teacher and give the class assignments; I usually focused on Math and Art. But I loved pretending to give orders!

5What qualities should a good teacher have?

Firstly, I think a teacher needs to be patient. Secondly, I believe the teacher must be kind and encouraging, which creates a warm, open learning environment. I also think they should have interpersonal skills to understand the needs of all different students. Of course, there are other teachers, but I would use this as the rule of thumb (a general rule). 


IELTS SPEAKING PART 1 Speaking Part 1 1. How often do you drink water?

IELTS SPEAKING PART 1

Speaking Part 1

1. How often do you drink water?

Of course, every single day! Staying hydrated (giving someone water to keep them healthy) is a priority because I get a headache if I don't, not to mention my weight loss goals. So drinking enough water is critical for good health.

2 What kind of water do you like to drink?

All sorts; I'm not too picky (selective)! I drink either tap water through a Brita filter or bottled water on occasion (sometimes). I usually fill my refillable water bottle with water and carry it with me throughout the day.

3. Do you drink bottled water or water from water machines?

Water in a bottle. Because the water in my country is potable (drinkable), I usually use a filter to improve the flavor. However, I buy a water bottle if this isn't an option, though I prefer not to due to environmental concerns.

4 Do you like to play in the water?

Oh my God, I adore it! It's just a lot of fun. On a hot day, jumping in a cold pool is one of the best feelings in the world. It's one of my favorite ways to unwind on a hot summer day.


IELTS SPEAKING PART 1 Speaking Part 1 1 Do you like birds? OR How do you feel about birds?

IELTS SPEAKING PART 1

Speaking Part 1

1 Do you like birds? OR How do you feel about birds?

I am interested in nature, so I enjoy learning about different plant species, animal kingdoms, and bird species. They are truly fascinating creatures that come in various shapes and sizes. One of my favorite pastimes is bird watching.

2 Have you seen many kinds of birds?

On the other hand, birds are a rare sight in the city. So far, most of what I've seen about birds has come from documentaries about the great outdoors. I've seen some common breeds in person, such as pigeons, but nothing too exotic.

3. How do people in your country feel about birds?

Overall, they are not very into birds. Only older adults are fond of keeping birds. Most people only like to eat them, especially game birds like pheasants. People in remote areas often hunt for birds in the wild and roast them over an open fire. They are considered a delicacy where I come from.

4 Have you seen many different kinds of birds?

I have only seen a few; I am not a bird watcher. The ones I have seen are pretty common, like pigeons and sparrows. I haven't sighted any exotic breeds.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Currently, there is a trend toward using alternative forms of medicine. However, at best, these methods are ineffective, and at worst, they may be dangerous. -To what extent do you agree with this statement? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Currently, there is a trend toward using alternative forms of medicine. However, at best, these methods are ineffective, and at worst, they may be dangerous.

-To what extent do you agree with this statement?

-Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge.

ANSWER

Alternative medicine is not new. It is widely acknowledged that it predates conventional medicine and is still used by many people worldwide. I am not convinced that it is dangerous, and I believe that both alternative and traditional medicine can be beneficial.

There are several reasons why the conventional medical community frequently dismisses alternatives:

Because there has been little scientific research into such medicine, there is scarce evidence to support their supporters' claims.

  1. People frequently try such treatment because of recommendations from friends, and as a result, they come to the therapist with a very positive attitude, which may be part of the cure.
  2. These therapies are usually only beneficial for long-term, chronic conditions.

Acute medical problems, such as accidental injury frequently necessitate more traditional approaches.

On the other hand, there are still compelling reasons to use alternatives. Despite the lack of scientific evidence, there is much anecdotal evidence that these therapies work. Furthermore, they frequently have few or no side effects far from dangerous, so the worst-case scenario is no change. One of the strongest arguments for the effectiveness of alternative therapies in the West is that, while conventional medicine is free, many people are willing to pay a high price for alternatives. It would be surprising if they continued to be unhelpful.

I firmly believe that conventional medicine and alternative therapies can and should coexist. However, they have different strengths and can be used effectively to target particular medical problems. Therefore, the best situation would be for alternative therapies to support and complement conventional medicine.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Do the dangers of chemicals in food production and preservation outweigh the advantages? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Do the dangers of chemicals in food production and preservation outweigh the advantages?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge.

Answer

Today, most foods sold in small stores and supermarkets contain chemicals to improve production and ensure the food lasts longer. However, there are concerns that these may have negative consequences. The risks associated with this, in my opinion, outweigh the benefits.

Chemicals are added to food for a variety of reasons. First, it is to improve the product's appearance, which is accomplished through colorings, which encourage people to purchase food that would otherwise not look appealing to eat. Another reason is to preserve the food. So much of the food we eat would not last that long if it were not for the chemicals they contain, so again this is an advantage to the companies that sell food as their products have a longer shelf life.

Therefore, this evidence shows that the main benefits are to the companies and not the customer. Although companies claim these food additives are safe and have research to support this, the study is possibly biased as it comes from their own companies or people with connections to these companies. It is common to read reports these days in the press about possible links to various health issues such as cancer. Food additives have also been linked to problems such as hyperactivity in children.

To conclude, although there are benefits to placing chemicals in food, I believe that these principally help the companies but could be a danger to the public. It is unlikely that this practice can be stopped, so food must be clearly labeled, and I hope that organic products will become more readily available at reasonable prices.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Global warming is one of the most severe issues that the world faces today. What are the causes of global warming, and what measures can governments and individuals take to tackle the issue? -Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

 Q-global warming is one of the most severe issues that the world faces today. What are the causes of global warming, and what measures can governments and individuals take to tackle the issue? -Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge

 Answer Global warming is probably the most concerning threat to our planet right now. This essay will investigate the causes of global warming and propose some potential solutions. CO2 emissions and deforestation are the two most important causes of global warming. CO2, which depletes the ozone layer, is produced by various sources, the most problematic of which are power plants that burn fossil fuels. As a result, thousands of tonnes of CO2 are released into the atmosphere every year. Another source of these emissions is gasoline for transportation, increasing as our demand for cars and global consumption rises, resulting in an increasing need to transport goods. Furthermore, because forests store a lot of carbon, deforestation causes more CO2 to stay in the atmosphere. Nonetheless, there are potential solutions or ways to mitigate the effects. First, governments must reduce our reliance on fossil fuels and promote alternatives. Plant-derived plastics, biodiesel, wind power, and solar power are positive steps. Governments must enforce CO2 emission limits for polluting industries in their respective countries to be effective. Individuals can also help by making lifestyle changes. People should, for example, try to buy cars with the best fuel economy and only use their vehicles when necessary. Finally, small things like buying energy-efficient light bulbs, turning off the electricity in the house, and planting trees in the garden can help. To conclude, although global warming is a serious issue, there are steps that governments and individuals can take to reduce its effects. If we are to save our planet, this must be treated as a priority for all concerned.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Overpopulation of urban areas has led to numerous problems. Identify one or two serious ones and suggest ways that governments and individuals can tackle these problems.? -Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Overpopulation of urban areas has led to numerous problems.

Identify one or two serious ones and suggest ways that governments and individuals can tackle these problems.?

-Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge.

Answer

Many countries are currently experiencing problems caused by rapidly growing populations in urban areas. Therefore, both governments and individuals must find ways to overcome these problems.

Overcrowding and poor quality housing can result from overpopulation in many large cities. In addition, poorly heated or damp housing can lead to serious health issues, such as bronchitis or pneumonia. Another serious consequence of overcrowding is increased crime, as poor living conditions may drive young people to desperate measures like crime or drug use. Therefore, in terms of solutions, I believe the government should bear the primary responsibility:

The state must provide basic housing and healthcare for all of its citizens.

Setting up community projects to foster more community spirit and keep young people off the streets is good. For example, youth clubs or evening classes for teenagers would keep them occupied.

Naturally, individuals should also try to address these problems. One way is to put pressure on the government to ensure they tackle the problems by, for instance, forming action groups to lobby the government and request intervention and adequate funding. They could also create Neighbourhood Watch areas to try and help reduce the high levels of crime.

Therefore, it is clear that the problems caused by overpopulation in urban areas are severe. Yet if governments and individuals share a collective responsibility, it may become possible to offer some solutions.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Do the dangers of chemicals in food production and preservation outweigh the advantages? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Do the dangers of chemicals in food production and preservation outweigh the advantages?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge.

Answer

Today, most foods sold in small stores and supermarkets contain chemicals used to improve production and ensure the food lasts longer. However, there are concerns that these may have negative consequences. The risks associated with this, in my opinion, outweigh the benefits.

Chemicals are added to food for a variety of reasons. First, it is to improve the product's appearance, which is accomplished through colorings, which encourage people to purchase food that would otherwise not look appealing to eat. Another reason is to preserve the food. So much of the food we eat would not last that long if it were not for the chemicals they contain, so again this is an advantage to the companies that sell food as their products have a longer shelf life.

Therefore, this evidence shows that the main benefits are to the companies and not the customer. Although companies claim these food additives are safe and have research to support this, the study is possibly biased as it comes from their own companies or people with connections to these companies. It is common to read reports these days in the press about possible links to various health issues such as cancer. Food additives have also been linked to problems such as hyperactivity in children.

To conclude, although there are benefits to placing chemicals in food, I believe that these principally help the companies but could be a danger to the public. It is unlikely that this practice can be stopped, so food must be clearly labeled, and I hope that organic products will become more readily available at reasonable prices.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Stress is now a significant problem in many countries around the world. -What are some of the factors in modern society that cause this stress, and how can we reduce it? -Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Stress is now a significant problem in many countries around the world.

-What are some of the factors in modern society that cause this stress, and how can we reduce it?

-Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge.

Answer

Stress is a problem that can harm many people's lives, and various factors in modern society are to blame. However, there are ways to mitigate the potential consequences.

The modern world we live in today presents us with many issues that we did not have to cope with in the past. Firstly, there are issues of terrorism that we are constantly confronted with within the media. Whether these are real or not, we are led to believe our lives are in constant danger, be it flying on a plane or traveling on public transport. Climate change is another worry that everyone has to face. A significant rise in temperatures could radically affect our ways of life and our children's. There are also more health issues to be concerned about than in the past, with rises in Alzheimer's, diabetes, and stroke, to name but a few. All of these concerns can result in stress.

Tackling such problems will not be easy, but some measures can be taken. Governments and the media could play their part by ensuring that we are given more positive stories instead of persistently bombarding us with such negative images and information about our world. However, given this is unlikely to happen, we need to develop strategies to distract us from these influences. Of course, exercising regularly is one thing we should do as this has been shown to increase endorphin levels and lead to feelings of happiness. In addition, sleeping enough helps us to recuperate and restore our bodies. Finally, eating correctly can improve our health and less worry about potential diseases.

Although there are many factors around us today that lead to stress, we can take steps to reduce it. The strains we face in modern society will likely worsen, so ignoring them is not an option for many people.

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IELTS SPEAKING PART 1 Speaking Part 1 1 What natural sound(s) do you like (the most)? (Why?)

IELTS SPEAKING PART 1

Speaking Part 1

1 What natural sound(s) do you like (the most)? (Why?)

That's an intriguing question. I'm a morning person, and nothing soothes me more than the sound of birds chirping (the noise birds make) in the morning. That sound is so fresh and innocent to me, and it immediately puts me at ease. Even though I now live in a big city, it transports me back to my childhood in the country.

2 What sounds remind you of your childhood?

I'd describe it as the sound of '90s pop music. My family was huge music fans, so we would always drive around my small town blasting 90's pop (at total volume), including Britney Spears, Counting Crows, Nsync, and others. Although this was not my parents' favorite music, they would always play it for my sister and me. As a result, we have many family memories of singing along to these memorable (a song you remember) hits. As a result, I consider these songs to be my childhood soundtrack (movie pieces).

3 What sounds do you dislike? (Why?) 

The sound of honking horns is my biggest pet peeve (something that irritates you). They irritate me! This noise is almost unbearable (impossible to tolerate), owing to its loud, unexpected (unexpected) sound, which immediately disturbs my peace. Furthermore, it is usually the sound of a frustrated or angry driver which adds to the annoyance.

4 Does your school have any quiet places for studying?

Because my university's library strictly enforces (makes you follow the laws exactly) the silence policy, it creates a quiet, tranquil environment for students to study in peace. Although she can be a pain (annoying) at times, I appreciate that Ms. Schauerman takes her job seriously. If someone speaks, she will walk over and say, "hush! It's a library! "in a stern (sharp and severe) tone of voice Furthermore, the library is outfitted with beanbags, desks, a computer lab, and conference-style desks, making it a pleasant place to work.

5 What (kinds of) music do you like the most?

That's a difficult question because I enjoy a wide range of music, but I'd have to say (decide) 90's music. I prefer this type of music because it makes me nostalgic (I miss the past). After all, I was born in the 1990s (someone born in the 1990s). I prefer pop, alternative, and punk rock music from the last decade. I believe I am most fond of (really like) this era (period) because of the music's light-hearted (not deep or sad meaning), easy-listening style.

6 What are some places where there is a lot of noise?

It's nearly impossible for me to escape the noise because I come from a bustling (busy) city. Street vendors, honking horns, motorbikes, barking dogs, and construction sites continuously fill the streets. The old town is the noisiest part of the city, as it has a higher concentration (high numbers in one area) of street sellers, more new construction projects, and more traffic passing through, as it is the liveliest part of the city.

7 What type of noise do you come across in your daily life?

What a commotion (mix of sounds)! It ranges from screaming matches (fights) between partners and families in my apartment to street vendors shouting out their wares for all to hear, motorbikes speeding by, and blaring horns. The sound of horns is the one that most defines my city. Horns are natural to fill the streets, given the city's heavy traffic and lack of clearly defined lanes.

8 Do you mind noises? (Do any noises bother you?)

Because I'm a light sleeper (I wake up quickly), the noises around me irritate me. The sound of a barking dog, on the other hand, is the most aggravating (annoying). It's just so shrill (it gets stuck in your head)! It's alarming and makes it difficult for me to concentrate on anything else. Furthermore, it saddens me to hear that a dog is in such distress that it must bark in such away.


IELTS SPEAKING PART 1 Speaking Part 1 1. How often do you drink water?

IELTS SPEAKING PART 1

Speaking Part 1

1. How often do you drink water?

Of course, every single day! Staying hydrated (giving someone water to keep them healthy) is a priority because I get a headache if I don't, not to mention my weight loss goals. So drinking enough water is critical for good health.

2 What kind of water do you like to drink?

All sorts; I'm not too picky (selective)! I drink either tap water through a Brita filter or bottled water on occasion (sometimes). I usually fill my refillable water bottle with water and carry it with me throughout the day.

3. Do you drink bottled water or water from water machines?

Water in a bottle. Because the water in my country is potable (drinkable), I usually use a filter to improve the flavor. However, I buy a water bottle if this isn't an option, though I prefer not to due to environmental concerns.

4 Do you like to play in the water?

Oh my God, I adore it! It's just a lot of fun. On a hot day, jumping in a cold pool is one of the best feelings in the world. It's one of my favorite ways to unwind on a hot summer day.


Cambridge 10 ielts LISTENING TEST 2 · Transport SurveyWith answers Section 1: Questions 1-10 Complete the notes below. Write ONE WORD OR A NUMBER. Transport Survey

               Cambridge 10 ielts LISTENING TEST 2

·  Transport SurveyWith answers

Section 1: Questions 1-10
Complete the notes below. Write ONE WORD OR A NUMBER.

Transport Survey
Travelled to town today: by bus
Name: Lusia (1) 
Address: (2)  White Stone Road
Area: Bradfield
Postcode: (3) 
Occupation: (4) 
Reason for visit to town: to go to the (5) 
Suggestions for improvement: better (6) 
Have more footpaths
More frequent (7) 
Things that would encourage cycling to work:
• Having (8)  parking places for bicycles
• Being able to use a (9)  at work
• The opportunity to have cycling (10)  on busy roads. 

Section 2: Questions 11-14
Choose the correct letter, A, B or C.

New city developments
11. The idea for the two new developments in the city came from
 A local people
 B the City Council
 C the SWRDC

12. What is unusual about Brackenside pool?
 A its architectural style
 B its heating system
 C its method of water treatment

13. Local newspapers have raised worries about
 A the late opening date
 B the post of the project
 C the size of the facilities

14. What decision has not yet been made about the pool?
 A whose statue will be at the door
 B the exact opening times
 C who will open it

Questions 15-20
Which feature is related to each of the following areas of the world represented in the playground?

Choose SIX answers from the box and write the correct letter, A-l, next to questions 15-20.

Areas of the world
15 Asia 
16 Antarctica 
17 South America 
18 North America 
19 Europe 

20 Africa 


 

Section 3: Questions 21 and 22
Choose TWO letters, A-E.

Which TWO hobbies was Thor Heyerdahl very interested in as a youth?
 A camping
 B climbing
 C collecting
 D hunting
 E reading

Questions 23 and 24
Choose TWO letters, A-E.

Which do the speakers say are the TWO reasons why Heyerdahl went to live on an island?
 A to examine ancient carvings
 B to experience an isolated place
 C to formulate a new theory
 D to learn survival skills
 E to study the impact of an extreme environment

Questions 25-30
Choose the correct letter, A, B or C.

The later life of Thor Heyerdahl
25. According to Victor and Olivia, academics thought that Polynesian migration from the east was impossible due to
 A the fact that Eastern countries were far away
 B the lack of materials for boat building
 C the direction of the winds and currents

26. Which do the speakers agree was the main reason for Heyerdahl’s raft journey?
 A to overcome a research setback
 B to demonstrate a personal quality
 C to test a new theory

27. What was most important to Heyerdahl about his raft journey?
 A the fact that he was the first person to do it
 B the speed of crossing the Pacific
 C the use of authentic construction methods

28. Why did Heyerdahl go to Easter Island?
 A to build a stone statue
 B to sail a reed boat
 C to learn the local language

29. In Olivia’s opinion, Heyerdahl’s greatest influence was on
 A theories about Polynesian origins
 B the development of archaeological methodology
 C establishing archaeology as an academic subject

30. Which criticism do the speakers make of William Oliver’s textbook?
 A Its style is out of date
 B Its content is over-simplified
 C Its methodology is flawed 

Section 4: Questions 31-40
Complete the notes below. Write ONE WORD ONLY.

THE FUTURE OF MANAGEMENT
Business markets
• greater (31)  among companies
• increase in power of large (32)  companies
• rising (33)  in certain countries

External influences on businesses
• more discussion with (34)  before making business decisions
• environmental concerns which may lead to more (35) 

Business structures
• more teams will be formed to work on a particular (36) 
• businesses may need to offer hours that are (37)  , or the chance to work remotely

Management styles
• increasing need for managers to provide good (38) 
• changes influenced by (39)  taking senior roles

Changes in the economy
• service sector continues to be important
• increasing value of intellectual property
• more and more (40)  workers

ANSWERS

1.Hardie
2. 19
3. GT82LC
4. hairdresser
5. dentist
6. lighting
7. trains
8. safe
9. shower
10. training
11. A
12. C
13. C
14. A
15. E
16. F
17. D
18. H
19. A
20. B
21. B
22. C
23. B
24. E
25. A
26. C
27. C
28. A
29. B
30. A
31. competition
32. global
33. demand
34. customers
35. regulation
36. project
37. flexible
38. leadership
39. women
40. self-employed


Cambridge 10 ielts LISTENING TEST 1 · SELF-DRIVE TOURS IN THE USAWith answers Section 1: Questions 1-6 Complete the notes below. Write ONE WORD ONLY. SELF-DRIVE TOURS IN THE USA

Cambridge 10 ielts LISTENING TEST 1

·  SELF-DRIVE TOURS IN THE USAWith answers

Section 1: Questions 1-6
Complete the notes below. Write ONE WORD ONLY.

SELF-DRIVE TOURS IN THE USA
Name: Andrea Brown
Address: 24, (1)  Road
Postcode: BH5 2OP
Phone: 07786643091
Heard about company from: (2) 
Possible self drive tours:
Trip one:
• Los Angeles: customer wants to visit some (3)  parks with their children
• Yosemite Park: customer wants to stay in a lodge, not a (4) 
Trip two:
• Customer wants to see the (5)  on the way to Cambria
• At Santa Monica: not interested in shopping
• At San Diego: wants to spend time on the (6) 

Questions 7-10
Complete the table below. Write ONE WORD OR A NUMBER.

(7)                    (8)   
(9)                    (10) 

Cambridge IELTS 10 Listening Test 1 – Section 2

Section 2: Questions 11 and 12
Choose TWO letters A-E.

Which TWO facilities at the leisure club have recently been improved?
 A the gym
 B the tracks
 C the indoor pool
 D the outdoor pool
 E the sports training for children

Questions 13-20
Complete the notes below. Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer.

Joining the leisure club
Personal Assessment
• New members should describe any (13) 
• The (14)  will be explained to you before you use the equipment.
• You will be given a six-week (15) 

Types of membership
• There is a compulsory £90 (16)  fee for members.
• Gold members are given (17)  to all the LP clubs.
• Premier members are given priority during (18)  hours.
• Premier members can bring some (19)  every month.
• Members should always take their (20)  with them.

Cambridge IELTS 10 Listening Test 1 – Section 3

Section 3: Questions 21-25
Choose the correct letter, A, B or C.

Global Design Competition
21. Students entering the design competition have to
 A produce an energy-efficient design
 B adapt an existing energy-saving appliance
 C develop a new use for current technology.

22. John chose a dishwasher because he wanted to make dishwashers
 A more appealing
 B more common
 C more economical

23. The stone in John’s ‘Rockpool’ design is used
 A for decoration
 B to switch it on
 C to stop water escaping

24. In the holding chamber, the carbon dioxide
 A changes back to a gas
 B dries the dishes
 C is allowed to cool

25. At the end of the cleaning process, the carbon dioxide
 A is released into the air
 B is disposed of with the waste
 C is collected ready to be re-used

Questions 26-30
Complete the notes below. Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer.

• John needs help preparing for his (26) 
• The professor advises John to make a (27)  of his design.
• John’s main problem is getting good quality (28) 
• The professor suggests John apply for a (29) 
• The professor will check the (30)  information in John’s written report.

Cambridge IELTS 10 Listening Test 1 – Section 4

Section 4: Questions 31-40
Complete the notes below. Write ONE WORD ONLY.

THE SPIRIT BEAR
General facts
• It is a white bear belonging to the black bear family.
• Its colour comes from an uncommon (31) 
• Local people believe that it has unusual (32) 
• They protect the bear from (33) 

Habitat
• The bear’s relationship with the forest is complex.
• Tree roots stop (34)  along salmon streams.
• The bears’ feeding habits provide nutrients for forest vegetation.
• It is currently found on a small number of (35) 

Threats
• Habitat is being lost due to deforestation and construction of (36)  by logging companies.
• Unrestricted (37)  is affecting the salmon supply.
• The bears’ existence is also threatened by their low rate of (38) 

Going forward
• Interested parties are working together.
• Logging companies must improve their (39)  of logging.
• Maintenance and (40)  of the spirit bears’ territory is needed.

ANSWERS

1. Ardleigh
2. newspaper
3. theme
4. tent
5. castle
6. beach
7. 2020
8. flight
9. 429
10. dinner
11. A
12. C
13. health problems
14. safety rules
15. plan
16. joining
17. free entry
18. peak
19. guests
20. photo card
21. C
22. A
23. B
24. A
25. C
26. presentation
27. model
28. materials
29. grant
30. technical
31. gene
32. powers
33. strangers
34. erosion
35. islands
36. roads
37. fishing
38. reproduction
39. methods
40. expansion


IELTS SPEAKING PART 1 Speaking Part 1 1 What will you bring when you go out?

IELTS SPEAKING PART 1

Speaking Part 1

1 What will you bring when you go out?

There are some items that I would consider essential whenever I go out. For example, headphones to listen to music while I'm on the go. It makes my daily commute more enjoyable.

2 Did you ever forget to bring something?

I must admit that I am a forgetful person. I've left the house without my keys, phone, or wallet. It's inconvenient to discover that you don't have any cash on hand when you want to pay for a coffee or something.

3 Will you bring different things in the daytime or at night?

I must admit that I am a forgetful person. I've left the house without my keys, phone, or wallet. It's inconvenient to discover that you don't have any cash on hand when you want to pay for a coffee or something.

.


IELTS SPEAKING PART 1 Speaking Part 1 1 Do you remember your dream when you woke up?

IELTS SPEAKING PART 1

Speaking Part 1

1 Do you remember your dream when you woke up?

No, not at all. When I wake up, I frequently have no memory of my dreams. Instead, I recall disjointed fragments of the invention that make no sense.

2 Do you like hearing others' dreams?

Yes, I suppose. Many people are haunted by their dreams and need to talk about them. Some people are terrified when they see nightmares.

3. Do you think dreams will affect life?

To a certain extent, I believe. What they see in their dreams has an impact on some people. So, for example, if they see death or suffering, they may interpret it as an omen and take precautions such as driving more carefully. So, I guess dreams do influence our actions.

4 Do you want to learn more about dreams?

I have to say no because it is not an area I am particularly interested in. I'm sure dreams can reveal genuinely fascinating things about our brain and cognition, but I'm more of an artist, so I'd instead learn about music or culture than dreams.

.


IELTS SPEAKING PART 1 SPEAKING PART Do you like any teachers of yours?

IELTS SPEAKING PART 1

SPEAKING PART 

Do you like any teachers of yours?

There were a few teachers in particular who I admired. First, I will tell you about Mrs. Burrier, my high school PE teacher. Because she knew I was painfully shy and clumsy (I easily trip or fall) in gym class, she let me do the dance routine assigned to us in a private room only before her, saving me any potential embarrassment. It was greatly appreciated!

2Do you still keep in touch with your teacher?

I've lost touch with all of my elementary and middle school teachers, but I maintain contact with a couple of university professors. It was easier to get to know university professors because they could have more of a relationship with students. Every year, my Spanish professor and I message back and forth to catch up.

3Do you want to be a teacher?

I don't think I'd be good at teaching because I'm not patient. Furthermore, I dread (do not look forward to) standing in front of the classroom to get the children's attention while they play (play). I believe it takes a particular person to be a teacher, and unfortunately, I do not fit the bill!

4Do you remember your fav teacher from primary school?

Certainly! Ms. Puleo, my second-grade teacher, will be mentioned. Even with us little rascals, she was always kind, encouraging, and patient (slang for kids). I always felt a sense of warmth in her classroom, which the students appreciated. More teachers like her are needed in the world.

5Did you pretend to be a teacher in childhood?

Oh yes! I remember playing teacher with a small chalkboard my friend had at her house. I used to think it was so entertaining to be the teacher and give the class assignments; I usually focused on Math and Art. But I loved pretending to give orders!

5What qualities should a good teacher have?

Firstly, I think a teacher needs to be patient. Secondly, I believe the teacher must be kind and encouraging, which creates a warm, open learning environment. I also think they should have interpersonal skills to understand the needs of all different students. Of course, there are other teachers, but I would use this as the rule of thumb (a general rule). 



IELTS SPEAKING PART 1 Speaking Part 1 1 Do you like rainy days?

IELTS SPEAKING PART 1

Speaking Part 1

1 Do you like rainy days?

Without a doubt! After a heavy rain, I enjoy the freshness, cool breeze, and petrichor. It's fantastic!

2 What do you do on rainy days?

Rainy days are ideal for watching movies. I've wished to watch a movie or finish some unfinished reading. Of course, films and books will consume my entire day. But now and then, I'd rather spend the day with my pet, teaching it new tricks.

3 Does it rain much in your country? (Where? When?)

It is entirely within the tropical belt and receives a lot of precipitation each year. The northern part, on the other hand, gets the most rainfall. The Western Pacific typhoon season, which can see severe storms lashing the coast from August to November, can also impact this region.

4 Is there any part of your country where it doesn't rain much? (Where?)

I believe the driest place is X, located on the south-central coast. The weather is quite extreme throughout the year, with a lot of wind and a hot and dry atmosphere. There is also no winter here, and the average temperature is significantly higher than in most other parts of the country.

5. Does it rain much in your hometown? Can you remember any time when it rained particularly heavily? (When?)

Of course, yes. About a year ago, we had several days of torrential rain, almost nonstop, and the entire neighborhood flooded. Because the water was up to my knees, traffic came to a complete halt. So, yeah, that was probably the worst time I've ever experienced.

6. Does rain ever affect transportation in your hometown? (How?)

Yes, absolutely. Rain frequently causes severe traffic congestion, especially during a heavy downpour. People should plan on being stuck in traffic for several hours. It could be because vehicles move slower in the rain.


IELTS SPEAKING PART 1 Speaking Part 1 1 Are you studying or working?

IELTS SPEAKING PART 1

Speaking Part 1

1 Are you studying or working?

I'm currently a senior at X University, one of the nation's top schools. Admission is incredibly competitive, so I'm very proud of being a student here.

2 What are you studying?

I'm majoring in Accountancy, so as you can guess, I deal a lot with numbers and figures day in and day out. It can be overwhelming at times, but I think that I have a knack for mathematics and calculations, so it's okay.

3. Why did you choose to study that major?

There are many reasons for my choice. Primarily, I have an interest in Accountancy. Another reason could be Accountancy itself since I've found that my personality has changed positively. I've become more patient and skillful.

4 What's the most challenging part of your study?

For the most part, I'd say it's the workload. Students are constantly under pressure to meet deadlines because there are so many assignments. But on the other hand, exams are a piece of cake. They are entirely predictable, and I can breeze through them with a bit of revision.

5 What do you like most about your school?

I guess the aspect I find most enjoyable is the environment. I get to study in English-speaking classrooms, and the facilities are top-notch; all the classrooms are air-conditioned and equipped with projectors. In addition, my friends and teachers are all adorable, so, all in all, it's a great place to study.



IELTS SPEAKING PART 1 Speaking Part 1 1 What form of transport do you prefer to use? Why?

IELTS SPEAKING PART 1

Speaking Part 1

1 What form of transport do you prefer to use? Why?

Without a doubt, I'd say motorcycles. People riding motorcycles can be seen all over my country. Almost everyone rides a bike. The popularity of motorcycles can be attributed to their low cost and convenience. They also vary significantly in size, color, and quality. As a result, everyone has a wide range of options.

2 How often do you take buses?

Every day, almost. I can't ride my motorcycle because my house is far from my university. Furthermore, exhaust fumes pollute the air, and traffic jams are common, especially during peak hours. As a result, I'd instead take the bus to save time and gas, as well as to reduce pollution.

3 Can you compare the advantages of planes and trains?

Planes and trains leave and arrive on time every time. Numerous convenient facilities cater to specific groups of passengers. However, traveling by plane saves time and is more enjoyable in onboard amenities such as meals and comfortable seats. Furthermore, traveling by train allows you to see the world outside and admire the views from your heart. As a result, most train passengers have a positive experience.

4 How much time do you spend traveling on an average day?

Every day, I have to commute from my house to work. Traveling back and forth usually takes me 30 minutes.

5 Would you ride bikes to work in the future?

Not. Riding a bike means exposing yourself to unpredictable weather and air pollution. What is worse, I'm afraid, are the main streets or the highway too dangerous for cyclists, as cars, motorbikes, and buses will travel very quickly. Thus I'd rather ride a motorbike or take the bus instead.

6 What will become the most popular means of transport in your country?

I think buses will take the lead. You can travel the distance without worrying about ticket prices or rainy weather outside. Also, new buses now offer better services like comfortable seats for the elderly or sound air conditioning systems.

7 Do you prefer public transport or private transport?

I'd instead take public transportation. It's much cheaper, and because it can hold a large number of people, it helps reduce the intensity of traffic jams during peak hours while also lowering greenhouse gas emissions caused by vehicles. On the other hand, private transportation is more expensive in fees, taxes, and gasoline.



Cambridge 11 ielts reading TEST 4 passage 3 ‘This Marvellous Invention’ READING with answers READING PASSAGE 3 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below. ‘This Marvellous Invention’

Cambridge 11 ielts reading TEST 4 passage 3

‘This Marvellous Invention’

READING with answers

READING PASSAGE 3

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.

‘This Marvellous Invention’

A

Of all mankind’s manifold creations, language must take pride of place. Other inventions -the wheel, agriculture, sliced bread – may have transformed our material existence, but the advent of language is what made us human. Compared to language, all other inventions pale in significance, since everything we have ever achieved depends on language and originates from it. Without language, we could never have embarked on our ascent to unparalleled power over all other animals, and even over nature itself.

B

But language is foremost not just because it came first. In its own right it is a tool of extraordinary sophistication, yet based on an idea of ingenious simplicity: ‘this marvellous invention of composing out of twenty-five or thirty sounds that infinite variety of expressions which, whilst having in themselves no likeness to what is in our mind, allow us to disclose to others its whole secret, and to make known to those who cannot penetrate it all that we imagine, and all the various stirrings of our soul’ This was how, in 1660, the renowned French grammarians of the Port-Royal abbey near Versailles distilled the essence of language, and no one since has celebrated more eloquently the magnitude of its achievement. Even so, there is just one flaw in all these hymns of praise, for the homage to languages unique accomplishment conceals a simple yet critical incongruity. Language is mankind s greatest invention – except, of course, that it was never invented. This apparent paradox is at the core of our fascination with language, and it holds many of its secrets.

C

Language often seems so skillfully drafted that one can hardly imagine it as anything other than the perfected handiwork of a master craftsman. How else could this instrument make so much out of barely three dozen measly morsels of sound? In themselves, these configurations of mouth p,f,b,v,t,d,k,g,sh,a,e and so on – amount to nothing more than a few haphazard spits and splutters, random noises with no meaning, no ability to express, no power to explain. But run them through the cogs and wheels of the language machine, let it arrange them in some very special orders, and there is nothing that these meaningless streams of air cannot do: from sighing the interminable boredom of existence to unravelling the fundamental order of the universe.

D

The most extraordinary thing about language, however, is that one doesn’t have to be a genius to set its wheels in motion. The language machine allows just about everybody from pre-modern foragers in the subtropical savannah, to post-modern philosophers in the suburban sprawl – to tie these meaningless sounds together into an infinite variety of subtle senses, and all apparently without the slightest exertion. Yet it is precisely this deceptive ease which makes language a victim of its own success, since in everyday life its triumphs are usually taken for granted. The wheels of language run so smoothly that one rarely bothers to stop and think about all the resourcefulness and expertise that must have gone into making it tick. Language conceals art.

E

Often, it is only the estrangement of foreign tongues, with their many exotic and outlandish features, that brings home the wonder of languages design. One of the showiest stunts that some languages can pull off is an ability to build up words of breath-breaking length, and thus express in one word what English takes a whole sentence to say. The Turkish word çehirliliçtiremediklerimizdensiniz, to take one example, means nothing less than ‘you are one of those whom we can’t turn into a town-dweller’. (In case you were wondering, this monstrosity really is one word, not merely many different words squashed together – most ol its components cannot even stand up on their own.)

F

And if that sounds like some one-off freak, then consider Sumerian, the language spoken on the banks of the Euphrates some 5,000 years ago by the people who invented writing and thus enabled the documentation of history. A Sumerian word like munintuma’a (‘when he had made it suitable for her’) might seem rather trim compared to the Turkish colossus above. What is so impressive about it, however, is not its lengthiness but rather the reverse – the thrifty compactness of its construction. The word is made up of different slots, each corresponding to a particular portion of meaning. This sleek design allows single sounds to convey useful information, and in fact even the absence of a sound has been enlisted to express something specific. If you were to ask which bit in the Sumerian word corresponds to the pronoun ‘it’ in the English translation ‘when he had made it suitable for her’, then the answer would have to be nothing. Mind you, a very particular kind of nothing: the nothing that stands in the empty slot in the middle. The technology is so fine-tuned then that even a non-sound, when carefully placed in a particular position, has been invested with a specific function. Who could possibly have come up with such a nifty contraption?

Questions 27-32

Reading Passage 3 has six paragraphs, A-F.

Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-F from the list of headings below.

Write the correct number, i-vii, in boxes 27-32 on your answer sheet.

List of Headings

 Differences between languages highlight their impressiveness

ii  The way in which a few sounds are organised to convey a huge range of meaning

iii  Why the sounds used in different languages are not identical

iv  Apparently incompatible characteristics of language

v  Even silence can be meaningful

vi  Why language is the most important invention of all

vii  The universal ability to use language

27  Paragraph A

28  Paragraph B

29  Paragraph C

30  Paragraph D

31  Paragraph E

32  Paragraph F

Questions 33-36

Complete the summary using the list of words, A-G, below.

Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes 33-36 on your answer sheet.

The importance of language

The wheel is one invention that has had a major impact on 33……………… aspects of life, but no impact has been as 34………………. as that of language. Language is very 35…………………, yet composed of just a small number of sounds.

Language appears to be 36………………… to use. However, its sophistication is often overlooked.

A difficult B complex C original

D admired             E   material  easy

G fundamental

Questions 37-40

Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 3?

In boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet, write

YES    if the statement agrees with the views of the writer

NO    if the statement contradicts the views of the writer

NOTGIVEN    if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

37  Human beings might have achieved their present position without language.

38  The Port-Royal grammarians did justice to the nature of language.

39  A complex idea can be explained more clearly in a sentence than in a single word.

40 The Sumerians were responsible for starting the recording of events.

  Cambridge 11 Test 4 passage 3 Reading Answers

Passage 3

27. vi

28. iv

29. ii

30. vii

31. i

32. v

33. E

34. G

35. B

36. F

37. NO

38. YES

39. NOT GIVEN

40. YES


Cambridge 11 ielts reading TEST 3 passage 3 Preface to ‘How the other half thinks: Adventures in mathematical reasoning’ READING with answers READING PASSAGE 3 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below. Preface to ‘How the other half thinks: Adventures in mathematical reasoning’

Cambridge 11 ielts reading TEST 3 passage 3

Preface to ‘How the other half thinks:

Adventures in mathematical reasoning’

READING with answers

READING PASSAGE 3

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.

Preface to ‘How the other half thinks:

Adventures in mathematical reasoning’

A

Occasionally, in some difficult musical compositions, there are beautiful, but easy parts – parts so simple a beginner could play them. So it is with mathematics as well. There are some discoveries in advanced mathematics that do not depend on specialized knowledge, not even on algebra, geometry, or trigonometry. Instead they may involve, at most, a little arithmetic, such as ‘the sum of two odd numbers is even’, and common sense. Each of the eight chapters in this book illustrates this phenomenon. Anyone can understand every step in the reasoning.

The thinking in each chapter uses at most only elementary arithmetic, and sometimes not even that. Thus all readers will have the chance to participate in a mathematical experience, to appreciate the beauty of mathematics, and to become familiar with its logical, yet intuitive, style of thinking.

B

One of my purposes in writing this book is to give readers who haven’t had the opportunity to see and enjoy real mathematics the chance to appreciate the mathematical way of thinking. I want to reveal not only some of the fascinating discoveries, but, more importantly, the reasoning behind them.

In that respect, this book differs from most books on mathematics written for the general public. Some present the lives of colorful mathematicians. Others describe important applications of mathematics. Yet others go into mathematical procedures, but assume that the reader is adept in using algebra.

C

I hope this book will help bridge that notorious gap that separates the two cultures: the humanities and the sciences, or should I say the right brain (intuitive) and the left brain (analytical, numerical). As the chapters will illustrate, mathematics is not restricted to the analytical and numerical; intuition plays a significant role. The alleged gap can be narrowed or completely overcome by anyone, in part because each of us is far from using the full capacity of either side of the brain. To illustrate our human potential, I cite a structural engineer who is an artist, an electrical engineer who is an opera singer, an opera singer who published mathematical research, and a mathematician who publishes short stories.

D

Other scientists have written books to explain their fields to non-scientists, but have necessarily had to omit the mathematics, although it provides the foundation of their theories. The reader must remain a tantalized spectator rather than an involved participant, since the appropriate language for describing the details in much of science is mathematics, whether the subject is expanding universe, subatomic particles, or chromosomes. Though the broad outline of a scientific theory can be sketched intuitively, when a part of the physical universe is finally understood, its description often looks like a page in a mathematics text.

E

Still, the non-mathematical reader can go far in understanding mathematical reasoning. This book presents the details that illustrate the mathematical style of thinking, which involves sustained, step-by-step analysis, experiments, and insights. You will turn these pages much more slowly than when reading a novel or a newspaper. It may help to have a pencil and paper ready to check claims and carry out experiments.

F

As I wrote, I kept in mind two types of readers: those who enjoyed mathematics until they were turned off by an unpleasant episode, usually around fifth grade, and mathematics aficionados, who will find much that is new throughout the book.

This book also serves readers who simply want to sharpen their analytical skills. Many careers, such as law and medicine, require extended, precise analysis. Each chapter offers practice in following a sustained and closely argued line of thought. That mathematics can develop this skill is shown by these two testimonials:

G

A physician wrote, ‘The discipline of analytical thought processes [in mathematics] prepared me extremely well for medical school. In medicine one is faced with a problem which must be thoroughly analyzed before a solution can be found. The process is similar to doing mathematics.’

A lawyer made the same point, “Although I had no background in law – not even one political science course — I did well at one of the best law schools. I attribute much of my success there to having learned, through the study of mathematics, and, in particular, theorems, how to analyze complicated principles. Lawyers who have studied mathematics can master the legal principles in a way that most others cannot.’

I hope you will share my delight in watching as simple, even naive, questions lead to remarkable solutions and purely theoretical discoveries find unanticipated applications.

Questions 27-34

Reading Passage has seven sections, A-G.

Which section contains the following information?

Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes 27-34 on your answer sheet.

NB   You may use any letter more than once.

27  a reference to books that assume a lack of mathematical knowledge

28  the way in which this is not a typical book about mathematics

29  personal examples of being helped by mathematics

30  examples of people who each had abilities that seemed incompatible

31  mention of different focuses of books about mathematics

32  a contrast between reading this book and reading other kinds of publication

33  a claim that the whole of the book is accessible to everybody

34  a reference to different categories of intended readers of this book

Questions 35-40

Complete the sentences below.

Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 35-40 on your answer sheet.

35  Some areas of both music and mathematics are suitable for someone who is a………………

36  It is sometimes possible to understand advanced mathematics using no more than a limited knowledge of………………

37 The writer intends to show that mathematics requires……………… thinking, as well as analytical skills.

38  Some books written by………………. have had to leave out the mathematics that is central to their theories.

39  The writer advises non-mathematical readers to perform………………. while reading

40  A lawyer found that studying………………. helped even more than other areas of mathematics in the study of law.

  Cambridge 11 Test 3 passage 3 Reading Answers

Passage 3

27. D

28. B

29. G

30. C

31. B

32. E

33. A

34. F

35. beginner

36. arithmetic

37. intuitive

38. scientists

39. experiments

40. theorems


Cambridge 11 ielts reading TEST 3 passage 2 Great Migrations READING with answers READING PASSAGE 2 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26 which are based on Reading Passage 2 below. Great Migrations

Cambridge 11 ielts reading TEST 3 passage 2

Great Migrations

READING with answers

READING PASSAGE 2

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26 which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.

Great Migrations

Animal migration, however it is defined, is far more than just the movement of animals. It can loosely be described as travel that takes place at regular intervals – often in an annual cycle – that may involve many members of a species, and is rewarded only after a long journey. It suggests inherited instinct. The biologist Hugh Dingle has identified five characteristics that apply, in varying degrees and combinations, to all migrations. They are prolonged movements that carry animals outside familiar habitats; they tend to be linear, not zigzaggy; they involve special behaviours concerning preparation (such as overfeeding) and arrival; they demand special allocations of energy. And one more: migrating animals maintain an intense attentiveness to the greater mission, which keeps them undistracted by temptations and undeterred by challenges that would turn other animals aside.

An arctic tern, on its 20,000 km flight from the extreme south of South America to the Arctic circle, will take no notice of a nice smelly herring offered from a bird-watcher’s boat along the way. While local gulls will dive voraciously for such handouts, the tern flies on. Why? The arctic tern resists distraction because it is driven at that moment by an instinctive sense of something we humans find admirable: larger purpose. In other words, it is determined to reach its destination. The bird senses that it can eat, rest and mate later. Right now it is totally focused on the journey; its undivided intent is arrival.

Reaching some gravelly coastline in the Arctic, upon which other arctic terns have converged, will serve its larger purpose as shaped by evolution: finding a place, a time, and a set of circumstances in which it can successfully hatch and rear offspring.

But migration is a complex issue, and biologists define it differently, depending in part on what sorts of animals they study. Joe! Berger, of the University of Montana, who works on the American pronghorn and other large terrestrial mammals, prefers what he calls a simple, practical definition suited to his beasts: ‘movements from a seasonal home area away to another home area and back again’. Generally the reason for such seasonal back-and-forth movement is to seek resources that aren’t available within a single area year-round.

But daily vertical movements by zooplankton in the ocean – upward by night to seek food, downward by day to escape predators – can also be considered migration. So can the movement of aphids when, having depleted the young leaves on one food plant, their offspring then fly onward to a different host plant, with no one aphid ever returning to where it started.

Dingle is an evolutionary biologist who studies insects. His definition is more intricate than Berger’s, citing those five features that distinguish migration from other forms of movement. They allow for the fact that, for example, aphids will become sensitive to blue light (from the sky) when it’s time for takeoff on their big journey, and sensitive to yellow light (reflected from tender young leaves) when it’s appropriate to land. Birds will fatten themselves with heavy feeding in advance of a long migrational flight. The value of his definition, Dingle argues, is that it focuses attention on what the phenomenon of wildebeest migration shares with the phenomenon of the aphids, and therefore helps guide researchers towards understanding how evolution has produced them all.

Human behaviour, however, is having a detrimental impact on animal migration. The pronghorn, which resembles an antelope, though they are unrelated, is the fastest land mammal of the New World. One population, which spends the summer in the mountainous Grand Teton National Park of the western USA, follows a narrow route from its summer range in the mountains, across a river, and down onto the plains. Here they wait out the frozen months, feeding mainly on sagebrush blown clear of snow. These pronghorn are notable for the invariance of their migration route and the severity of its constriction at three bottlenecks. If they can’t pass through each of the three during their spring migration, they can’t reach their bounty of summer grazing; if they can’t pass through again in autumn, escaping south onto those windblown plains, they are likely to die trying to overwinter in the deep snow. Pronghorn, dependent on distance vision and speed to keep safe from predators, traverse high, open shoulders of land, where they can see and run. At one of the bottlenecks, forested hills rise to form a V, leaving a corridor of open ground only about 150 metres wide, filled with private homes. Increasing development is leading toward a crisis for the pronghorn, threatening to choke off their passageway.

Conservation scientists, along with some biologists and land managers within the USA’s National Park Service and other agencies, are now working to preserve migrational behaviours, not just species and habitats. A National Forest has recognised the path of the pronghorn, much of which passes across its land, as a protected migration corridor. But neither the Forest Service nor the Park Service can control what happens on private land at a bottleneck. And with certain other migrating species, the challenge is complicated further – by vastly greater distances traversed, more jurisdictions, more borders, more dangers along the way. We will require wisdom and resoluteness to ensure that migrating species can continue their journeying a while longer.

Questions 14-18

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage2?

In boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE               if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE  if the statement contradicts the information

NOTGIVEN    if there is no information on this

14  Local gulls and migrating arctic terns behave in the same way when offered food.

15  Experts’ definitions of migration tend to vary according to their area of study.

16  Very few experts agree that the movement of aphids can be considered migration.

17  Aphids’ journeys are affected by changes in the light that they perceive.

18  Dingles aim is to distinguish between the migratory behaviours of different species.

Questions 19-22

Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-G, below.

Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes 19-22 on your answer sheet.

19  According to Dingle, migratory routes are likely to

20  To prepare for migration, animals are likely to

21  During migration, animals are unlikely to

22  Arctic terns illustrate migrating animals’ ability to

A  be discouraged by difficulties.

B  travel on open land where they can look out for predators.

C  eat more than they need for immediate purposes.

D  be repeated daily.

E  ignore distractions.

F  be governed by the availability of water.

G  follow a straight line.

Questions 23-26

Complete the summary below.

Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 23-26 on your answer sheet.

The migration of pronghorns

Pronghorns rely on their eyesight and 23……………. to avoid predators. One particular population’s summer habitat is a national park, and their winter home is on the 24……………… where they go to avoid the danger presented by the snow at that time of year. However, their route between these two areas contains three 25……………… One problem is the construction of new homes in a narrow 26……………… of land on the pronghorns’ route.

  Cambridge 11 Test 3 passage 2 Reading Answers

Passage 2

14. FALSE

15. TRUE

16. NOT GIVEN

17. TRUE

18. FALSE

19. G

20. C

21. A

22. E

23. speed

24. plains

25. bottlenecks

26. corridor/ passageway


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Many old buildings protected by law are part of a nation's history. But, unfortunately, some people think they should be knocked down and replaced by new ones. -How important is it to maintain old buildings? -Should history stand in the way of progress? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Many old buildings protected by law are part of a nation's history. But, unfortunately, some people think they should be knocked down and replaced by new ones.

-How important is it to maintain old buildings?

-Should history stand in the way of progress?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge.

 Answer

Most countries worldwide have some, if not many, historical buildings such as temples, churches, and houses in their cities, villages, and surrounding areas. Maintaining these, in my opinion, is critical, but that does not mean progress should halt.

Specific historic structures must be preserved for a variety of reasons. First, these structures provide insight into our countries' histories, showing us how people lived many centuries ago. We could only learn from books without them, and it would be tragic if this were the only way to see them. Many of these structures are also quite beautiful. Consider the numerous religious systems, such as churches and temples, worldwide. Finally, on a more practical level, many of these structures generate vital revenue for a country because so many tourists visit them.

This is not to say that modernization should be avoided. On the contrary, I believe that while progress is being made, old buildings can be preserved. Old historic buildings are often renovated while retaining their original character and used for modern purposes. In addition, history does not stifle progress but rather the opposite. We better understand the world we live in by studying and learning about our history, allowing us to build a better future.

To conclude, I believe that it is essential to protect and preserve old buildings as we can learn about our history as can others from other countries. Such knowledge can also help us understand how to modernize our countries in the best way.



IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Government investment in the arts, such as music and theatre, is a waste of money. Governments must invest this money in public services instead. -To what extent do you agree with this statement?? -Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Government investment in the arts, such as music and theatre, is a waste of money. Governments must invest this money in public services instead.

-To what extent do you agree with this statement??

-Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge.

Model Answer

The government now spends a significant portion of its budget on public services and the arts. Although I agree that funding for public services is critical, I do not believe that funding for the arts is a waste of money.

There are several reasons why the government spends so much money on public services. First and foremost, public services include things like hospitals, roads, and schools, which determine the quality of life for most of us. For example, if the government does not spend enough money on hospitals, our society's health may suffer. Similarly, if not enough money is spent on education, our children may not receive an adequate education.

However, this does not mean that the arts should be wholly ignored. First, many arts institutions struggle to generate a profit, so many theatres and other venues may have to close without government assistance. Furthermore, the arts significantly impact our overall quality of life. Many people enjoy seeing music and theatre performances, so the government must assist such institutions so that they can continue to entertain the public.

To summarise, there are clear benefits to ensuring a large amount of investment goes into public services, as this influences the quality of life for nearly all of us. Furthermore, I do not believe spending money on the arts is a waste of money as this also provides significant benefits.



IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Entertainers & Politicians Q-Nowadays, entertainers get paid more than politicians. What are the reasons for this? -Is this a negative or positive development?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Entertainers & Politicians 

Q-Nowadays, entertainers get paid more than politicians.

What are the reasons for this?

-Is this a negative or positive development?

Nowadays, entertainers almost consistently earn more than politicians. This, in my opinion, is the result of technological advancements in the entertainment industry, which is a positive development because politics should not be used to make a fortune.

Because of advances in media distribution, entertainment is now one of the most profitable industries. In the early twentieth century, vaudeville actors and musicians were looked down on and paid little. However, with the advent of cinema in the 1920s and the rise of television in the 1950s, entertainers could reach a larger audience. The surge has continued not only with the diversification of television but also with the invention of CDs, portable music players, the internet, and streaming websites like Netflix and YouTube. All these new media reaches the majority of the world's population, who then pay for the content by subscribing to or watching paid advertisements.

This is a positive development because politics should not be a business. The early American founding fathers, such as Alexander Hamilton and George Washington, who sacrificed private wealth for public service, are excellent examples. Hamilton was New York's leading lawyer, and when he enthusiastically joined Washington's cabinet, he took a significant pay cut. By the end of his term, he was deeply in debt, but he had no regrets because he saw public political action as far more valuable than private capital. Of course, politicians should be paid well, but this should never overshadow their primary goal of serving their country.

Finally, because of the media age, entertainers make more money, and politicians should not be jealous of their wealth. However, many politicians are compelled by economic gain when they should be more self-interested in their role in public life.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Cars Damaging the Environment Q-The manufacturing and use of cars damage the environment, but their popularity has increased. -Why is this? -How could this be controlled?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Cars Damaging the Environment

Q-The manufacturing and use of cars damage the environment, but their popularity has increased.

-Why is this?

-How could this be controlled?

Even though car production and car use contribute to pollution, the auto industry continues to grow. Furthermore, developing countries now have more disposable income, and governments can use regulation to limit the resulting environmental damage.

The primary reason for the growing number of cars in developing countries is population growth. Ownership peaked decades ago in developed countries, and many European countries are now embracing greener modes of transportation. However, cars are seen as a status symbol that boosts self-esteem in developing countries while also serving a practical travel purpose. The rise in car ownership is unsurprising when combined with rising per capita GDP. For example, a growing middle class in Vietnam has dramatically increased purchases of foreign automobiles over the last decade. Because of the high demand, a Vietnamese company introduced the first domestically produced car last year. This pattern is repeated in developing countries all over the world.

The government's response is the most powerful. Consumers will continue to purchase automobiles, but the government controls various potential environmental safeguards. For example, stricter emission standards laws could be enacted. This would reduce the average amount of pollution from individual cars and make a significant difference overall. Another measure would be to discourage car ownership by heavily taxing cars and improving public transportation. In Vietnam, for example, there is a 200 percent tax on vehicles, and the government is building the world's most expensive subway system in Ho Chi Minh City. Unfortunately, individuals are unlikely to change their behavior in large numbers, so policymakers must deter citizens through bold reforms and policies.

In conclusion, more cars can be attributed to rising global incomes, and pragmatic solutions can be found through government regulation. The heavy environmental toll of vehicles can be reduced if taken seriously.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 THE WORLD CUP Q-Some people think that it is a waste of money for countries to host significant sporting events like the world cup and that the money would be better spent on other things. However, others think that hosting important sporting events has a clear, positive impact on a country. -Discuss both these views and give your opinion. -Give a reason for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

THE WORLD CUP

Q-Some people think that it is a waste of money for countries to host significant sporting events like the world cup and that the money would be better spent on other things. However, others think that hosting important sporting events has a clear, positive impact on a country.

-Discuss both these views and give your opinion.

-Give a reason for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

ANSWER

There is fierce competition among nations to host major international sporting events such as the World Cup or Olympics. It is a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to boost the host nation's national reputation. However, despite its undeniable benefits, I believe the costs are too high, and governments should prioritize other critical issues to serve their citizens better.

On the one hand, hosting global events such as the World Cup or the Olympics provides numerous economic and infrastructure benefits. There is an influx of tourists from worldwide who require lodging, dining, and traditional products during these events. The efforts to accommodate these tourists will last long after they have left. The cost of renovating a hotel may pay for itself during the event and then begin turning a substantial profit in subsequent years. The other central area of development is the rapid expansion of high-quality infrastructure. Nations will be forced to invest in new sports facilities like swimming pools and stadiums and renovate pre-existing infrastructures like roads and airports. For example, China used the Beijing Olympics as an opportunity to modernize old buildings and streets.

On the other hand, these competitions use tremendous resources from the host nation for a temporary competition. Therefore, to ensure the success of these prestigious events, governments must waste a large percentage of the nation's budget in the years leading up to the competition, often in the billions of dollars. Moreover, the newly constructed facilities usually fall into disuse after each tournament. Brazil is a salient example of this, as many of the swimming pools and sports facilities used in the 2014 Olympics are currently abandoned and decrepit. Meanwhile, other pressing issues have been plaguing, including the need for new schools for underprivileged students and quality healthcare for the elderly population. If the government had prioritized these issues, the country would be in a better position, and its citizens would have a higher standard of living.

 Due to the high costs, I believe that the government should not allocate such a large percentage of its financial resources to hosting global events with negligible long-term impact. Instead, these events should be hosted in the same countries year after year so that the new infrastructure pays for itself over time.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Online Shopping Q-Online shopping is becoming more common these days. What effect could this have on the environment and the types of jobs required?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Online Shopping 

Q-Online shopping is becoming more common these days.

What effect could this have on the environment and the types of jobs required?

The pervasiveness of online shopping has raised concerns about the environment and an evolving labor market. However, online shopping, in my opinion, increases fossil fuel emissions and necessitates a large, unskilled workforce for both delivery and production.

Online shopping requires fossil fuels in the production and transportation of goods. To manufacture a given product, such as a television, book, or bag of muesli, there is an environmental cost associated with sourcing and transporting all of the elements, powering the factory that assembles it, and producing the petroleum byproduct plastic packaging. In the case of a large company like Amazon, the product must be driven or flown to various centers around the country to be available for next-day delivery. It is then gone or passed to the consumer who ordered it from the storage warehouse, further burning fossil fuels. The net impact on the environment is self-evidently massive and hastens climate change.

Furthermore, online shopping is such a massive industry that it manipulates the labor market. First and foremost, there are the workers who are directly involved. Couriers must pack, unpack, and ship products and the entire operation necessitates several managers, supervisors, and office workers. When working for the largest online retailers, who also streamline the means of production to offer the lowest prices, these workers are notoriously underpaid and exploited. Instead of sourcing from local businesses, which would be slightly more expensive, they opt for large factories, mainly in China, that can produce standardized products cheaply and quickly. This necessitates an army of factory workers working for low wages in hazardous conditions.

To summarise, online shopping contributes significantly to climate change and has created significant schisms in the labor market. Therefore, governments must regulate these corporations before their rampant profit-driven efficiency has unanticipated social and political consequences.


Cambridge 10 ielts reading TEST 2 passage 2 Gifted children and learning READING with answers READING PASSAGE 2 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26 which are based on Reading Passage 2 below. Gifted children and learning

Cambridge 10 ielts reading TEST 2 passage 2

Gifted children and learning

READING with answers

READING PASSAGE 2

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26 which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.

Gifted children and learning

A

Internationally, ‘giftedness’ is most frequently determined by a score on a general intelligence test, known as an IQ test, which is above a chosen cutoff point, usually at around the top 2-5%. Children’s educational environment contributes to the IQ score and the way intelligence is used. For example, a very close positive relationship was found when children’s IQ scores were compared with their home educational provision (Freeman, 2010). The higher the children’s IQ scores, especially over IQ 130, the better the quality of their educational backup, measured in terms of reported verbal interactions with parents, number of books and activities in their home etc. Because IQ tests are decidedly influenced by what the child has learned, they are to some extent measures of current achievement based on age-norms; that is, how well the children have learned to manipulate their knowledge and know-how within the terms of the test. The vocabulary aspect, for example, is dependent on having heard those words. But IQ tests can neither identify the processes of learning and thinking nor predict creativity.

B

Excellence does not emerge without appropriate help. To reach an exceptionally high standard in any area very able children need the means to learn, which includes material to work with and focused challenging tuition -and the encouragement to follow their dream. There appears to be a qualitative difference in the way the intellectually highly able think, compared with more average-ability or older pupils, for whom external regulation by the teacher often compensates for lack of internal regulation. To be at their most effective in their self-regulation, all children can be helped to identify their own ways of learning – metacognition – which will include strategies of planning, monitoring, evaluation, and choice of what to learn. Emotional awareness is also part of metacognition, so children should be helped to be aware of their feelings around the area to be learned, feelings of curiosity or confidence, for example.

C

High achievers have been found to use self-regulatory learning strategies more often and more effectively than lower achievers, and are better able to transfer these strategies to deal with unfamiliar tasks. This happens to such a high degree in some children that they appear to be demonstrating talent in particular areas. Overviewing research on the thinking process of highly able children, (Shore and Kanevsky, 1993) put the instructor’s problem succinctly: ‘If they [the gifted] merely think more quickly, then .we need only teach more quickly. If they merely make fewer errors, then we can shorten the practice’. But of course, this is not entirely the case; adjustments have to be made in methods of learning and teaching, to take account of the many ways individuals think.

D

Yet in order to learn by themselves, the gifted do need some support from their teachers. Conversely, teachers who have a tendency to ‘overdirect’ can diminish their gifted pupils’ learning autonomy. Although ‘spoon-feeding’ can produce extremely high examination results, these are not always followed by equally impressive life successes. Too much dependence on the teachers risks loss of autonomy and motivation to discover. However, when teachers o pupils to reflect on their own learning and thinking activities, they increase their pupils’ self-regulation. For a young child, it may be just the simple question ‘What have you learned today?’ which helps them to recognise what they are doing. Given that a fundamental goal of education is to transfer the control of learning from teachers to pupils, improving pupils’ learning to learn techniques should be a major outcome of the school experience, especially for the highly competent. There are quite a number of new methods which can help, such as child- initiated learning, ability-peer tutoring, etc. Such practices have been found to be particularly useful for bright children from deprived areas.

E

But scientific progress is not all theoretical, knowledge is a so vital to outstanding performance: individuals who know a great deal about a specific domain will achieve at a higher level than those who do not (Elshout, 1995). Research with creative scientists by Simonton (1988) brought him to the conclusion that above a certain high level, characteristics such as independence seemed to contribute more to reaching the highest levels of expertise than intellectual skills, due to the great demands of effort and time needed for learning and practice. Creativity in all forms can be seen as expertise se mixed with a high level of motivation (Weisberg, 1993).

F

To sum up, learning is affected by emotions of both the individual and significant others. Positive emotions facilitate the creative aspects of earning and negative emotions inhibit it. Fear, for example, can limit the development of curiosity, which is a strong force in scientific advance, because it motivates problem-solving behaviour. In Boekaerts’ (1991) review of emotion the learning of very high IQ and highly achieving children, she found emotional forces in harness. They were not only curious, but often had a strong desire to control their environment, improve their learning efficiency and increase their own learning resources.

Questions 14-17

Reading Passage 2 has six paragraphs, A-F.

Which paragraph contains the following information?

Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes 14-17 on your answer sheet

NBYou may use any letter more than once.

14   a reference to the influence of the domestic background on the gifted child.

15   reference to what can be lost if learners are given too much guidance.

16   a reference to the damaging effects of anxiety.

17   examples of classroom techniques which favour socially-disadvantaged children.

Questions 18-22

Look at the following statements (Questions 18-22) and the list of people below.

Match each statement with the correct person or people, A-E.

Write the correct letter, A-E, in boxes 18-22 on your answer sheet.

18   Less time can be spent on exercises with gifted pupils who produce accurate work.

19   Self-reliance is a valuable tool that helps gifted students reach their goals.

20   Gifted children know how to channel their feelings to assist their learning.

21   The very gifted child benefits from appropriate support from close relatives.

22   Really successful students have learnt a considerable amount about their subject.

List of People

A   Freeman

B   Shore and Kanevsky

C   Elshout

D Simonton

E   Boekaerts

Questions 23-26

Complete the sentences below.

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 23-26 on your answer sheet

23   One study found a strong connection between children’s IQ and the availability of ……………… and ……………….  at home.

24   Children of average ability seem to need more direction from teachers because they do not have ……………… .

25   Meta-cognition involves children understanding their own learning strategies, as well as developing ………………. .

26  Teachers who rely on what is known as ……………… often produce sets of impressive grades in class tests.

  Cambridge 10 Test 2 passage 2 Reading Answers

Passage 2

14. A

15. D

16. F

17. D

18. B

19. D

20. E

21. A

22. C

23. books and activities

24. internal regulation/ self-regulation

25. emotional awareness

26. spoon-feeding


Cambridge 10 ielts reading TEST 2 passage 1 Tea and the Industrial Revolution READING with answers READING PASSAGE 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13 which are based on Reading Passage 1 below. Tea and the Industrial Revolution

Cambridge 10 ielts reading TEST 2 passage 1

Tea and the Industrial Revolution

READING with answers

READING PASSAGE 1

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13 which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.

Tea and the Industrial Revolution

A Cambridge professor says that a change in drinking habits was the reason for the Industrial Revolution in Britain. Anjana Abuja reports

A

Alan Macfarlane, professor of anthropological science at King’s College, Cambridge has, like other historians, spent decades wrestling with the enigma of the Industrial Revolution. Why did this particular Big Bang – the world-changing birth of industry-happen in Britain? And why did it strike at the end of the 18th century?

B

Macfarlane compares the puzzle to a combination lock. ‘There are about 20 different factors and all of them need to be present before the revolution can happen,’ he says. For industry to take off, there needs to be the technology and power to drive factories, large urban populations to provide cheap labour, easy transport to move goods around, an affluent middle-class willing to buy mass-produced objects, a market-driven economy and a political system that allows this to happen. While this was the case for England, other nations, such as Japan, the Netherlands and France also met some of these criteria but were not industrialising. All these factors must have been necessary. But not sufficient to cause the revolution, says Macfarlane. ‘After all, Holland had everything except coal while China also had many of these factors. Most historians are convinced there are one or two missing factors that you need to open the lock.’

C

The missing factors, he proposes, are to be found in almost even kitchen cupboard. Tea and beer, two of the nation’s favourite drinks, fuelled the revolution. The antiseptic properties of tannin, the active ingredient in tea, and of hops in beer – plus the fact that both are made with boiled water – allowed urban communities to flourish at close quarters without succumbing to water-borne diseases such as dysentery. The theory sounds eccentric but once he starts to explain the detective work that went into his deduction, the scepticism gives way to wary admiration. Macfarlanes case has been strengthened by support from notable quarters – Roy Porter, the distinguished medical historian, recently wrote a favourable appraisal of his research.

D

Macfarlane had wondered for a long time how the Industrial Revolution came about. Historians had alighted on one interesting factor around the mid-18th century that required explanation. Between about 1650 and 1740, the population in Britain was static. But then there was a burst in population growth. Macfarlane says: ‘The infant mortality rate halved in the space of 20 years, and this happened in both rural areas and cities, and across all classes. People suggested four possible causes. Was there a sudden change in the viruses and bacteria around? Unlikely. Was there a revolution in medical science? But this was a century before Lister’s revolution*. Was there a change in environmental conditions? There were improvements in agriculture that wiped out malaria, but these were small gains. Sanitation did not become widespread until the 19th century. The only option left is food. But the height and weight statistics show a decline. So the food must have got worse. Efforts to explain this sudden reduction in child deaths appeared to draw a blank.’

E

This population burst seemed to happen at just the right time to provide labour for the Industrial Revolution. ‘When you start moving towards an industrial revolution, it is economically efficient to have people living close together,’ says Macfarlane. ‘But then you get disease, particularly from human waste.’ Some digging around in historical records revealed that there was a change in the incidence of water-borne disease at that time, especially dysentery. Macfarlane deduced that whatever the British were drinking must have been important in regulating disease. He says, ‘We drank beer. For a long time, the English were protected by the strong antibacterial agent in hops, which were added to help preserve the beer. But in the late 17th century a tax was introduced on malt, the basic ingredient of beer. The poor turned to water and gin and in the 1720s the mortality rate began to rise again. Then it suddenly dropped again. What caused this?’

F

Macfarlane looked to Japan, which was also developing large cities about the same time, and also had no sanitation. Water-borne diseases had a much looser grip on the Japanese population than those in Britain. Could it be the prevalence of tea in their culture? Macfarlane then noted that the history of tea in Britain provided an extraordinary coincidence of dates. Tea was relatively expensive until Britain started a direct clipper trade with China in the early 18th century. By the 1740s, about the time that infant mortality was dipping, the drink was common. Macfarlane guessed that the fact that water had to be boiled, together with the stomach-purifying properties of tea meant that the breast milk provided by mothers was healthier than it had ever been. No other European nation sipped tea like the British, which, by Macfarlanes logic, pushed these other countries out of contention for the revolution.

G

But, if tea is a factor in the combination lock, why didn’t Japan forge ahead in a tea-soaked industrial revolution of its own? Macfarlane notes that even though 17th-century Japan had large cities, high literacy rates, even a futures market, it had turned its back on the essence of any work-based revolution by giving up labour-saving devices such as animals, afraid that they would put people out of work. So, the nation that we now think of as one of the most technologically advanced entered the 19th century having ‘abandoned the wheel’.

——–

* Joseph Lister was the first doctor to use antiseptic techniques during surgical operations to prevent infections.

Questions 1-7

Reading Passage 1 has seven paragraphs, A-G.

Choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below.

Write the correct number, i-ix, in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet

List of Headings

 The search for the reasons for an increase in population

ii  Industrialisation and the fear of unemployment

iii  The development of cities in Japan 4 The time and place of the Industrial Revolution

iv  The time and place of the Industrial Revolution

v  The cases of Holland, France and China

vi  Changes in drinking habits in Britain

vii  Two keys to Britain’s industrial revolution

viii  Conditions required for industrialisation

ix  Comparisons with Japan lead to the answer

1  Paragraph A

2  Paragraph B

3  Paragraph C

4  Paragraph D

5  Paragraph E

 Paragraph F

 Paragraph G

Questions 8-13

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?

In boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE  if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE  if the statement contradicts the information

NOTGIVEN    if there is no information on this

8   China’s transport system was not suitable for industry in the 18th century.

9  Tea and beer both helped to prevent dysentery in Britain.

10  Roy Porter disagrees with Professor Macfarlane’s findings.

11   After 1740,there was a reduction in population in Britain.

12  People in Britain used to make beer at home.

13  The tax on malt indirectly caused a rise in the death rate.

  Cambridge 10 Test 2 passage 1 Reading Answers

Passage 1

1. iv

2. viii

3. vii

4. i

5. vi

6. ix

7. ii

8. NOT GIVEN

9. TRUE

10. FALSE

11. FALSE

12. NOT GIVEN

13. TRUE


IELTS Speaking Topic: School Q.1- Did you go to a secondary/high school near to where you lived? [Why/Why not]

IELTS Speaking Topic: School 

Q.1- Did you go to a secondary/high school near to where you lived? [Why/Why not]

Answer: Yeah, I went to a secondary school near where we lived. It was a pretty short walk away, which took me approximately 8 to 10 minutes to moderately reach my school. It is mainly for ease, safety, and safety that I attended that school. It would always be simple for me to travel from home without being fatigued after living in the vicinity of my high school. Moreover, because of public duty, my dad had to live away from us. Living near the high school would provide my dad more security because I didn't require a long journey to school.

Q.2- What did you like about your secondary/high school? [Why?]

Answer: A fresh experience with new teachers, new books, and a new library is to have an opportunity to study at a high school after primary/primary school. One of the most delicate things I enjoyed about my school, nevertheless, was to let the children enjoy the intervals between our sessions through lots of open spaces with a lovely garden and a lake with crystal clear water in and around. 

Q.3- Tell me about anything you didn’t like at your school.

Answer: Well, for the most part, I enjoyed high school, except I couldn't say that I enjoyed the same shirt, the trousers and day the same shoes. Nor have I ever liked to hear that my school gave the same monotonous tiffin every late morning. Another thing about my school I don't like was that I had to encounter more "bullies" than I would be prepared to confront.

Q.4- How do you think your school could be improved? [Why/Why not?]

Answer: Again, I enjoyed my high school since it continuously did its best to bring "the best" of us academically. But it did not push us to participate in activities like building a school debating team or cultural societies. So I'd have to enhance my high school on these fronts. Furthermore, simple work to maintain and repair some of the old high school buildings (by the way, it was a high school) also go a long way to enhance the "looks and sights" of an otherwise excellent institution.



IELTS Speaking Topic: Weekends Q.1- How do you usually spend your weekends? [Why?]

 IELTS Speaking Topic: Weekends

Q.1- How do you usually spend your weekends? [Why?]

Answer: I often stay outdoors for my weekends, such as swimming (summer days), fishing, and gardening. I mainly desire such outside activities since I spend too much time working indoors. Oh, of course, I'd want to have a rest and a good time in my favorite restaurant with my pals. I appreciate these outdoor activities since they make me strong, cheerful, and renewed with our contemporary, robust, and complex world's "all-familiar challenges."

Q.2- Which is your favorite part of the weekend? [Why?]

Answer: My favorite part of the weekend is undoubtedly the "morning," when I need not bother getting ready to work early. Then I like the part, of course, if I'm not worried I'll go to bed "early" or stay at night late. The Friday nights are even more remarkable when my mind is "busy" with the very idea of having a long weekend ahead of me.

Q.3- Do you think your weekends are long enough? [Why/Why not?]

Answer: Yes, I believe my weekends are long enough to help me rejuvenate for the next week by allowing me to do the stuff I like. Naturally, a weekend additional, many people would like me, but I don't see it happen soon. So whether or not our weekend is long enough depended mainly on how much time we expect to spend.

Q.4- How important do you think it is to have free time on the weekends? [Why?]

Answer: Work is undoubtedly vital, but relaxation, families, and friends are crucial. But we won't "charge" ourselves, or engage sufficiently with our family and friends, without sufficient free time, either on the weekends or some other times, to show them their importance in our lives. So we need adequate time to ensure "balanced" energy to make our career and personal lives successful.


IELTS SPEAKING PART 3 IELTS Speaking Part 3 topic: Leadership and politics. Q. 1. Do you think people are born to be leaders? Why/ Why not?

IELTS SPEAKING PART 3

IELTS Speaking Part 3 topic: Leadership and politics.

Q. 1. Do you think people are born to be leaders? Why/ Why not?

Answer: No, I don't believe that people are born leaders. Instead, leaders are formed by the circumstances in which they live and the people they wish to identify. To become a leader, one must have some unique skills and "abilities," which may or may not be inherited, but one must work hard to master those "skills and abilities." However, simply getting those skills and abilities is not enough; one must also put those skills and abilities to good use to overcome the right challenges at the correct times to be considered a "leader."

Q. 2. Can leadership skills be taught?Why/ Why not?

Answer: Yes, I believe that "leadership" skills, like any other, can be taught and learned because "leaders" are not a different breed of person, nor are they "born" as leaders. The difference between "perspective" leaders and others is that prospective leaders make a giant leap and are motivated to climb the success ladder to help others and lead in an organization where everyone else fails. Of course, some people are born with natural leadership abilities and qualities, but that doesn't mean that others can't achieve them through hard work and dedication.

Q. 3. Why are elected politicians often so unpopular?

Answer: Well, I can think of at least "trillions" of reasons why many elected officials are frequently unpopular. But I'll only mention a few of them here to spare the so-called politicians some "embarrassments" because they, of course, have no "shame." Oops! I appear to have just mentioned one of the reasons! To continue, politicians are frequently unpopular because they have "unparalleled" abilities to "lie" through their teeth as long as they are "awake." Finally, because they are often despised for being "financially corrupted," they will go to any length to oppress the poor and silence their "critics." They frequently fail to keep their promises to ordinary citizens and amass wealth in unethical ways.

Q. 4. What should a leader do to remain popular?

Answer: Remaining popular as a leader is a tricky business because the same factors that make them popular at one time can also make them unpopular at another. However, most of the time, a leader must understand the 'pulse' of their supporters. He must also be truthful about how he chooses to fight for the causes that he supports. Furthermore, a leader must ensure that he does not earn his living through corruption or "flexing" his muscle to remain popular. Finally, a politician must work hard to keep his promises to stay popular.

Q. 5. Do you think unelected heads of state are a good idea? Why/ Why not?

Answer: To be honest, putting unelected officials in charge of states is a great idea as long as there is solid transparency and accountability. Elections these days can be easily rigged, and as a result, the actual "winners" or elected officials may not be allowed to serve. However, it wouldn't be so bad if these elections didn't cost much money and time. Furthermore, we see a lot of violence during election times in some "developing" countries, dividing an entire nation.

Q. 6. In your opinion, what qualities a political leader should have?

Answer: To be a good political leader, a person must possess specific characteristics, such as patience, fairness, commitment, and the necessary educational qualifications to understand the various situation dynamics and positively arouse public passion. A political leader should also connect with his supporters personally to understand what makes them happy and what makes them unhappy. Finally, he must be truthful and dedicated to the causes of finding solutions to problems, not only for his supporters but also for those who oppose him.


IELTS Speaking Part 3 Topic: Life experience. Q. 1. Do you agree that we learn best from our mistakes?

IELTS Speaking Part 3 

Topic: Life experience.

Q. 1. Do you agree that we learn best from our mistakes?

Answer: Many people believe that our mistakes are our best teachers because they can teach us so much. Some of the most important life lessons we will ever learn will come from our mistakes or poor decisions. So, I agree with the suggestion that we learn best from our mistakes if we choose to learn from them by not repeating them in the future. However, whether or not we learn the most from our mistakes is heavily influenced by the amount of harm done to us. If we are made to "pay" very little or nothing for our mistakes, we are unlikely to learn from them.

Q. 2. What's the best way to gain experience in life?

Answer: Well, in my opinion, the best way to gain experience is to conduct some experiments, take some calculated risks, and make some arbitrary decisions even when we know we will most likely "fail" in some real-life situations. And, as we conduct those small experiments or make arbitrary decisions, we can reflect on the outcomes or experiences, whether we succeed or fail, so that when we face similar situations in the future, we will know exactly what types of adjustments are required, if any at all, to achieve the best possible results. We will never know what we are good at if we never try, and we will never gain any experience if we never try.

Q. 3. Can we gain life experience from books and movies? Why/ Why not?

Answer: No, we cannot gain life experiences from books or movies because real-life situations must be lived to gain experience. Books and films, without a doubt, can present some true stories and experiences in a very rational and realistic manner. But, of course, the issue is that everyone in this world is unique, with unique mindsets, skills, abilities, and talents. As a result, just because one person experiences something in a specific situation does not always imply that another person will experience the same thing in the same way.

Q. 4. Which is more important, experience or potential? Why?

Answer: At any time of day, I believe that "experience" is more important than "potential." Experience usually indicates that a person has a track record of getting things done. Having experience, more often than not, gives someone confidence to do something challenging in adverse conditions. Furthermore, having experiences allows someone to make wise decisions, especially when faced with difficult choices. Finally, experience matures and respects a person, and as a result, others around him are confident enough to follow his lead. On the contrary, a person's "potential" is frequently unexplored and untested unless it is brought to work by an excellent mentor or our confidence.

Q. 5. What experience do you wish you had gained? Why do you think so?

Answer: Well, I am lucky that I really have some great experiences in my life, but more is always better. Isn't it? So, sometimes, I wish that I had the experience of traveling at least two to three countries from each continent to experience what this beautiful world has in store for us. Besides, I also want to write on my own travel experiences and my website, which I plan to launch shortly, and other travelers' experiences in my country. Besides, I wish to write about how good writers can tell their stories. 

Q. 6. Why do some people fail to learn from their experiences?

Answer: Some people fail to learn from their experience because they are too arrogant to understand they can also learn something from "anything" or "anybody." Then, some other people fail to learn from their experiences because the experiences are probably too "embarrassing" for them sometimes, and as a result, they don't like to remember any part of it. Finally, some people don't learn from their experiences because they want to "justify" them, no matter how "undesirable" the experiences are, by essentially blaming others for their own experiences and fate.


Topic: Music Q. What types of music do you like to listen to? [Why?]

Topic: Music

Q. What types of music do you like to listen to? [Why?]

Answer: We all have our tastes and preferences when listening to or liking a particular type of music. As for me, I like "soft rock" or mellow music as opposed to hard rock or intense ones. Soft rock is a subgenre of light, melodic, radio-friendly pop (some would say "rock") music that employs clean and highly polished piano and acoustic guitar, aided by some bouncy and harmonious bass as the smooth and restrained use of electric guitar.

I listen to soft rock mainly because of its "ambiance," as it creates a relaxed and peaceful atmosphere around me on a subconscious level, allowing me to be anywhere. 

Q. At what times of day do you like to listen to music? [Why?]

Answer: I like to listen to my favorite soft rock at night before going to bed as its mellow and smooth sound, together with a slow rhythm, helps me to get rid of the tiredness of a stressful day.

Q. Did you learn to play a musical instrument when you were a child? [Why/Why not?]

Answer: No, I didn't learn to play any musical instrument when I was a child. I did, however, wanted to learn to play the guitar, but unfortunately, my parents were against it as it would, according to them, impact my studies negatively. 

Q. Do you think all children should learn to play a musical instrument? [Why/Why not?]

Answer: Yes, I think all children should learn to play a musical instrument if they are interested. They should know it because it requires good hand-eye coordination, which is crucial to a child's healthy development. Children also need to read the music and then convert that in their brain to the physical part of playing the instrument, which helps them develop good coordination and fast thinking. Studies have shown that learning to play an instrument can make a difference in a child's academic performance by helping him/her develop better listening skills.


Topic: Dancing Q. Do you enjoy dancing? [Why/Why not?]

Topic: Dancing

Q. Do you enjoy dancing? [Why/Why not?]

Answer: I don't precisely dance primarily because I am not good at it. But, please don't get me wrong as I don't have anything against "dancing," and I do like to watch "dancing" but it is just that I never feel the "desire" myself or the passion to "shake" my body at the beat or sound of any music. I guess that it is just not in my "gene." However, I think that "dancing" is a "domain" that should be left only for people who know how to dance.

Q. Has anyone ever taught you to dance? [Why/Why not?]

Answer: Nobody has ever taught me how to dance because I was never really interested in learning it and nobody in my family was a dancer.

Q. Tell me about any traditional dancing in your country.

Answer: Our country has a rich culture, because of its multi-cultural and multi-racial heritage, with its fair share of traditional dance and music. Malaysia sometimes referred to as 'truly Asia", has at least 15 different kinds of dances. However, the most popular type is called "Joget," a lively dance with an upbeat tempo. It is usually performed by couples who combine fast, graceful movements with playful humor. It has its origins in Portuguese folk dance, which was introduced to Melaka during the spice trade era. Some of the other dances are also a bit more popular than the others, depending on which part of Malaysia you live in. 

Q. Tell me about some popular dancing in your country?

Answer: In Malaysia, the Chinese Lion Dance is very popular during the Chinese New Year festival. Dragon Dance, another popular dance type, is typically performed to usher in the Chinese New Year. 

Besides, the Indian Bharata Natyam, a classical Indian dance, is famous in my country, which is poetry in motion based on ancient Indian epics. Moreover, I can recall "Bhangra," lively folk music and dance form of the "Sikh" community. Then "Zapin" is a popular dance in Malaysia that has its root in Islamic tradition. Finally, "Bamboo Dance" is a viral and entertaining traditional dance in which two long bamboo poles are held horizontally above the ground at ankle height. Then they clap together to a high-tempo drumbeat. 

Q. Do you think that traditional dancing will be popular in the future? [Why/Why not?]

Answer: Malaysia is a very diverse country with many traditions and heritage which have survived for centuries. Many traditional dances have also survived for centuries, just as they exist today. Malaysians always try to promote and practice them in every kind of celebration and social gatherings one way or another. Therefore, it is only natural to assume that traditional dance in Malaysia will become more and more popular in the coming days. 


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 The Ideal/Perfect Society Q-People have historically attempted to achieve a perfect society. However, it isn't easy to decide what an ideal community would be like. What would be an essential element of an ideal society? What can regular people do to make society more perfect?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

The Ideal/Perfect Society

Q-People have historically attempted to achieve a perfect society. However, it isn't easy to decide what an ideal community would be like. What would be an essential element of an ideal society? What can regular people do to make society more perfect?

The best way to improve our society is a topic that all governments and citizens are concerned about. Increased tolerance of difference, in my opinion, is the key to this. In addition, individuals can examine their own beliefs to avoid passing on ingrained prejudices to the next generation.

The most significant shifts in society over the last centuries have been related to progress intolerance of different people. The original pilgrims left England searching for new colonies where they could practice their religion freely. Racism and slavery in the nineteenth century were the direct results of treating one group of people as distinct from another. The most recent example is the movement to be more accepting of people of different sexual orientations. All of these have made society more perfect. Their evolution and nascent spread worldwide will allow the most significant number of people to enjoy complete freedom and opportunity.

Individuals can closely evaluate their beliefs and instill more tolerant values in the younger generation to achieve those above a more open society. Many people's acceptance of gay marriage over the last decade is an excellent example. Supporting gay marriage was political suicide in the twentieth century. However, people began to question the rationale for denying this fundamental human right after that. As a result, most schools and parents now teach their children about alternative lifestyles, and LGBT couples are much more common in popular culture. This is the first step toward a utopian, prejudice-free society.

Finally, a movement to accept more diverse members of society is already underway. With continued effort, it is reasonable to anticipate a generally positive attitude toward all people in the coming years, though this progressivism will vary significantly across countries.

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IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Choice Q-Some people believe that nowadays we have too many choices. To what extent do you agree or disagree? -Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Choice 

Q-Some people believe that nowadays we have too many choices. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

-Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge.

Nowadays, it is common to hear people complain about the number of choices people have compared to the past and the disadvantages of having so many readily available options in various areas of life. While I believe some of this is true, the increased choice is ultimately a positive trend because it opens up opportunities outside of the mainstream.

The main reason the increased choice is regarded as a negative development is that it complicates life. Consider the variety of products available to consumers today. Supermarkets are brimming with different brands with little discernible difference. This can lead to people wasting time and energy on decisions that have little to no impact. This also applies to online streaming services such as Netflix, Hulu, and HBO. People must not only spend time researching these sites, but once they decide, they limit what they will be able to watch in the future. If they subscribe to all of them, they will suddenly be paying upwards of $40 per month for actual viewing content. These are a few examples of how choice can consume time and complicate life.

Although choice adds complexity to life, the main advantage is that it provides options for people who are not part of dominant cultural trends. The changes in the music industry over the last 20 years, with the introduction of iTunes and streaming services, are the best example of this. In the past, big pop acts dominated radio and album sales. The music scene is now much more fragmented. This makes it more difficult for some artists while also allowing you to find a niche of music that you and others enjoy. This has been replicated in other fields, such as podcasting, painting, and filmmaking. People can see what interests them apart from what significant corporations attempt to push.

In conclusion, the drawbacks of increased choice do not outweigh the advantages of allowing people to explore what interests them the most. In the future, this will continue and present challenges and allow for a more diverse cultural experience for rich and poor alike worldwide.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Studying Science Q-More and more students at universities today are not choosing to study science. -Why is this happening? -What are the effects of this?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Studying Science 

Q-More and more students at universities today are not choosing to study science.

-Why is this happening?

-What are the effects of this?

Today, fewer undergraduates than ever before are pursuing careers in science. In addition, business-related subjects provide more financial security, resulting in less overall talent in scientific fields.

The main reason for the decline in science majors is the allure of business. A scientific subject like biology or chemistry necessitates intense specification, long lab hours, and uncertain future career options. On the other hand, business majors are guaranteed an easier path to a good salary and the respect of others. All of the majors related to commerce, which are rapidly growing in popularity, provide good evidence of this, including marketing, finance, corporate law, banking, and economics. Parents often pressure their children to be central in these subjects to secure a minimum level of financial success and raise the ceiling on future earning potential.

The result will be a general decline in scientific talent. Historically, science drew the best and brightest students who saw it as a path to personal wealth, glory, and the public good. An excellent example of this occurred in World War II's decades when advances in medicine and technology made brilliant individuals such as Marie Curie, Alexander Fleming, and Albert Einstein immortal role models. Unfortunately, today's role models are more likely to be business people, such as Steve Jobs, Warren Buffet, and Donald Trump. This reflects a societal shift and foreshadows fewer significant figures in science in the future.

In conclusion, the business has siphoned off potential science majors, resulting in fewer high-quality scientists. Therefore, it is essential to highlight the achievements of scientists and denigrate business people to curb this alarming trend.



IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Technology Q-Some believes technology has made our lives too complex, and the solution is to lead a simpler life without technology. -To what extent do you agree or disagree?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Technology

Q-Some believes technology has made our lives too complex, and the solution is to lead a simpler life without technology.

-To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Many people believe that technology has done more harm than good and that we should simplify our lives to live more fulfilling lives. I agree that technology has drawbacks, but I believe that rejecting technology is impractical.

The main reason technology has complicated people's lives today is that it has made people constantly available. Previously, a worker would work from 9 to 5 and then come home to spend time with their family, eat dinner, and enjoy their personal life. Unfortunately, that ease of use is no longer available. After work, you may continue to receive email notifications and phone calls from managers or coworkers. As a result, you can never be fully present at the moment because work constantly threatens to distract you.

Although life has become more complicated, which is a negative development, avoiding technology will only serve to isolate people from the rest of the world. It is essential to have a phone if you want to stay in touch with friends and learn about local events. You can use Facebook Messenger to communicate with individuals or make group plans for a low cost. Email is an essential component of nearly every job. You eliminate quality jobs that do not require it and choose manual labor as your vocation.

While technology has harmed people, abandoning it is not an option today unless drastic measures are taken. Instead, people should seek ways to compartmentalize technology to live happier, more fulfilling lives.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Ambition Q-Some thinks that ambition is good quality. Is it essential to be ambitious? Is it a positive or negative characteristic?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

 Ambition

Q-Some thinks that ambition is good quality.

Is it essential to be ambitious?

Is it a positive or negative characteristic?

The rise of the one percent and accumulated capital has led many people today to question the fundamental value of raw ambition. Though ambition has historical importance, it is a largely negative trait for most of society today.

Ambition’s value lies in pushing forward human progress. Some of the best evidence of this comes from advances in science. For example, Galileo was a determined astronomer, willing to doubt ingrained dogma to propagate his heretical view. We owe the basis of our understanding of the planetary system to him. A more recent example would be discoveries like penicillin and vaccines in the 20th century that resulted from highly ambitious, driven individuals whose legacies endure to this day. Without their aspirations, human civilization would have stagnated.

However, ambition for its own sake hurts society. When the aspiration is severed from passion and ethics, it becomes the raw engine of political and economic greed. An excellent example of this would be the rampant speculation fueling Wall Street. Most employees at large brokerage firms are ambitious in moving up the ladder and making more money for their clients but have little concern for the consequences of their actions. Reckless investment spurred on by greed was one of the underlying causes of the sub-prime mortgage scandal that led to a global financial crisis in 2008. As a result, millions of homeowners and investors lost their retirement savings. Unchecked, ambition will always tend towards excess, and society will always be left to reckon with the aftermath.

In conclusion, ambition is a crucial drive behind human civilization, but it is not a positive force on its own. Parents and educators need to serve as good role models to inspire children to check ambition with a conscience.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Leadership Essay 2 Q-Some believes that people are naturally born leaders, while others feel that leadership skills can develop. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

 Leadership Essay 2 

Q-Some believes that people are naturally born leaders, while others feel that leadership skills can develop.

Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

Many believe that leadership is innate rather than cultivated through time and experience. In my opinion, leadership is primarily developed rather than gifted.

Those who believe that there are naturally born leaders point out a person's character as a fixed quantity. However, some specific individuals display a natural charisma and inimitable capacity for command. A recent example of this would be Barack Obama. He is a naturally eloquent, stately, physically imposing presence and perfectly walks a fine line between warmth and firmness. Researchers have long identified common natural characteristics of leadership such as height, a deep voice, a strong chin, and natural grace of movement. However, these cannot be developed significantly and support the claim that leadership is intrinsic.

However, outstanding leadership is more deliberate than spontaneous. There are countless examples of individuals possessing all the physical characteristics of leaders who fail to inspire people. An instructive example of this is Steve Jobs. Early in his career, he encouraged people with his exceptional talent, but that had its limits as he pushed and demeaned employees, ultimately leading to his ouster from Apple. This humbling experience led him to soften the sharper edges of his personality in the ensuing decade by considering other viewpoints and giving up more control to competent employees. These learned traits served him well when he became CEO of Apple again and reached what many regards as the pinnacle of leadership.

In conclusion, though the endpoint may obscure the origins, all leaders must cultivate their hubris to become great leaders. The long-standing assumptions about leadership must be challenged to put better institutional practices to future mold pioneers of industry and politics.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Self-Employment Q-Nowadays, many people choose to be self-employed rather than work for a company or organization. Why might this be the case? What could be the disadvantages of being self-employed?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

 Self-Employment 

Q-Nowadays, many people choose to be self-employed rather than work for a company or organization. Why might this be the case? What could be the disadvantages of being self-employed?

ANSWER -Nowadays, many people prefer to start their businesses rather than work for someone else, owing to increased support for young entrepreneurs. However, the main disadvantages of not having an employer are a lack of expertise and the overall impact on businesses.

The number of self-employed people is related to the number of young entrepreneurs, and it stems from widespread angel investment in a variety of industries. One well-known example is the famous show Shark Tank,' in which a panel of investors and executives listen to product pitches and compete to buy stakes in budding entrepreneurs' businesses. This show has launched several successful products by securing initial funding, which has resulted in a trickle-down effect: not only has it turned specific dreams into realities, but it also encourages viewers, in general, to be more ambitious, and has thus been one of the main catalysts for the recent frenzy of self-run businesses.

Though there are undeniably positive aspects to all of these new businesses, I believe the overall impact is harmful because it results in many poorly run companies. For example, several ride-sharing apps, such as Uber, Grab, Lyft, Be, Go-Viet, and countless others, have emerged. To meet the growing demands of this industry, established companies provide a functional app with high-quality service. On the other hand, most small start-ups find themselves over their heads with apps that barely function and driver shortages specializing in inconveniencing customers. It would be preferable for those starting these derivative businesses to either work in companies and gain valuable experience, look for market gaps, develop worthy competitors, or be content with an excellent job in a corporation.

In conclusion, I feel that the rising number of new companies has led to a cult of overconfidence. If more people were satisfied working for others rather than pursuing unrealizable ambitions, this would likely lead to better consumer products and increased national economic prosperity.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Job Satisfaction/Security Q-Some people argue that job satisfaction is more important than job security, while others believe they cannot always expect job satisfaction and a permanent job is more important. -Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2 

Job Satisfaction/Security 

Q-Some people argue that job satisfaction is more important than job security, while others believe they cannot always expect job satisfaction and a permanent job is more important.

-Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

Some argue that security should take precedence over satisfaction in an uncertain job market. Of course, those with families cannot be blamed for holding such an opinion, but it is generally more important to enjoy your job and spread goodwill.

Workers with dependents place a premium on a consistent paycheck and benefits over all other considerations. If someone is starting labor of love, such as becoming an artist, they may struggle to make ends meet every month at first. They may be unable to send their children to good schools, live in a good neighborhood, and keep everyone in the house reasonably clothed and fed. Even if they can manage that, it will place incredible mental stress on them and their spouse and children. Research has shown these deeply ingrained anxieties from childhood can persist throughout adulthood.

It is, however, more important to pursue a job that is fulfilling. The vast majority of the world despises their job, and a sizable proportion of these people struggle to reconcile their dissatisfaction with their day-to-day temperament. An unhappy employee is more likely to be short with coworkers, complain to friends, and resent their family for the financial burden they must bear for their well-being. More of this person's daily interactions will be harmful, contributing to creating the world's largest repository of ill will over time. Allow the same person to enjoy their job, and there's a good chance they'll start brightening the days of those around them.

Overall, cultivating good humor is more important, and only in dire family situations should a person stay in a job for stability. Unfortunately, many people realize this after it is too late when they already have an expensive lifestyle to maintain or their prime working years are over.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Learning Languages and Customs Q-Some thinks that students must travel to another country to learn its language and customs. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

 Learning Languages and Customs

Q-Some thinks that students must travel to another country to learn its language and customs.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Many believe that traveling to the country in question is essential to become immersed in another language and culture. I generally agree, though there are certain exceptions depending on the purpose of learning.

Those with an academic interest in a given culture often do not need to travel there. This is particularly true if they are researching a historical period. For example, a scholar learning about Ancient Greece going there today will only see ruins and a radically different culture. Ancient Greek is no longer even spoken. It would be much more profitable for a student of the Ancients to learn the language fluently and become steeped in their histories and classic literature. The works of Euripides, Sophocles, and Herodotus will provide far greater insight into the history, culture, and language of the Ancient Greeks than the few relics from thousands of years ago.

Nonetheless, cases like the one detailed above are rare, and most people will benefit significantly from a more immersive experience. The difference between those studying abroad and learning in their own country is illustrative. Students attempting to learn English, for example, will need to be naturally adept at languages to become fluent without living in an English-speaking country. The majority of learners will improve faster when making daily transactions in English and learning in the real world outside the classroom. The cultural advantages are also self-evident. English movies and TV shows are realistic but pale compared to having actual foreign friends and experiencing firsthand their traditions and culture.

In conclusion, apart from esoteric academic study, nothing can replace the experience of living in another country. Anyone fully committed to understanding the culture and language of another country must factor in a period of residence there.



IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Traveling to Other Countries Q-Many people today are choosing to travel to other countries. Why is this happening? -Is this a positive or negative development?


IELT WRITING TASK 2

Traveling to Other Countries

Q-Many people today are choosing to travel tO other countries.

Why is this happening?

-Is this a positive or negative development?

More and more people today are choosing to travel internationally. This positive development is mainly because of a rise in middle-class income coupled with advances in aviation.

People today can afford to travel as it has become more convenient. In addition, the last half-century has seen wages in both developed and developing companies climb with the simultaneous expansion of the global middle class. As a result, workers have the disposable income to travel that they lacked in the past. This has been complemented with safer airplanes, so individuals are not afraid to fly. Airfares have also become cheaper as companies like Boeing produce more efficient planes; competition intensifies between competing airlines, and the supply exceeds the demand for flights. These factors combined have spawned a golden age of international travel.

Looking at the opportunity perspective, it is hard to see the advent of international travel as anything less than one of humanity’s most outstanding achievements. For the entirety of human history, most people lived and died near where they were born. Anyone who wanted to travel to another country possessed enormous wealth, time, and courage. Today, the average employee can save up and travel to see the wonders of the Rennaissance in Southern Europe, the vast monuments to history and modernity in China, or explore any other corner of Earth that has piqued their interest. This is an unprecedented opportunity unavailable to past generations.

In conclusion, international travel is a byproduct of the modern age, and we should all be grateful for its possibility. Of course, there are apparent environmental drawbacks, but those should not blind people to its benefits taken as a whole.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Cyclists and Cars Q-When cars and cyclists use the same roads; there are often problems. -Why is this the case? -What are the solutions?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

 Cyclists and Cars 

Q-When cars and cyclists use the same roads; there are often problems.

-Why is this the case?

-What are the solutions?

When cyclists and motorists share the same streets, many issues arise. This is usually the fault of the former, and the solutions all involve better urban planning.

When cyclists and motorists collide on the road, it is often due to the cyclist's distorted sense of priority. A general rule of thumb is that when cars have the right of way, they must yield to cyclists. Otherwise, because vehicles travel much faster than bicycles, the cyclist must wait for the car to pass so that roads do not become congested. Unfortunately, many people on bikes try to travel at the same speed as cars without a vehicle's maneuverability, safety, or braking ability. The result is that cars and cyclists are often at odds and wary of each other or, in extreme situations, collisions may result.

Better city planning and waiting for automobiles and cyclists to adapt to each other are the solutions to these road conflicts. Some European cities, such as Amsterdam, are excellent examples of this, with a high percentage of people traveling by bicycle. In addition, urban planners have created bike lanes and altered roadways to reduce potential conflicts. As a result, road rage and disagreement have decreased over time due to more precise rules of engagement and better urban planning. However, adding bike lanes is only part of the solution; planners must develop innovative solutions for roundabouts, traffic lights, and bridges that allow for a smooth traffic flow without the veiled aggression that typically characterizes the car-bicycle relationship.

In conclusion, cars and bikes are in opposition because cyclists have overestimated their mode of travel, and these issues can be remedied through better urban planning. Implementing these solutions is advisable since biking is such an environmental boon.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Problems with Purchasing Cars Q-More and more people in developing countries purchase cars for the first time. What problems does this cause? -What do you think are the possible solutions?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

 Problems with Purchasing Cars 

Q-More and more people in developing countries purchase cars for the first time. What problems does this cause? 

-What do you think are the possible solutions?

ANSWER-It is a pressing issue that increased automobile purchases in developing countries cause many problems that governments will have to address. However, the most significant issues revolve around traffic, and governments can reduce the impact by imposing higher taxes and supporting public transportation.

The growing popularity of automobiles as a mode of transportation in developing countries inevitably worsens road conditions. Roads in developing countries are often narrower and have fewer lanes. When previously impoverished countries' growing middle classes begin to replace buses, motorcycles, and bicycles with cars, the number of gridlocked roads often increases in tandem. According to The Economist, a 40% increase in traffic jams was associated with a 15% increase in automobile purchases in Vietnam in 2017.

Governments can implement one of two potential solutions to address this issue comprehensively. First, governments should raise taxes on all automobile purchases to discourage buyers. This has had a significant impact in cities like Singapore, where purchasing a car is prohibitively expensive for most residents. Another option is to invest more in public awareness campaigns for alternative modes of transportation. A notable example of this would be in Vietnam, where these campaigns, combined with lower fares to make busing more affordable, have significantly reduced the number of vehicles on the road.

To summarise, traffic congestion caused by automobiles is a severe problem that governments must work hard to address. Assume that efforts are made to reduce the number of cars on the road in favor more efficient modes of transportation. In that case, their initial investment will be repaid many times over through improved, sustained economic growth.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 News Media Influence Q-Some people think that the news media has become much more influential in people's lives today, and it is a negative development. Do you agree or disagree?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

News Media Influence

Q-Some people think that the news media has become much more influential in people's lives today, and it is a negative development. Do you agree or disagree?

It is widely assumed that the news has become an intrusive force in daily life. However, this viewpoint is entirely incorrect because information plays a significant role in the decision-making process of informed citizens.

Consuming modern news media correctly improves its readership's ability to make sound decisions about their interests. The way people follow political issues is a prime example of this. It is difficult to argue that staying informed about political developments is more important in democratic countries. For example, when Americans learned about the harmful effects of global warming on our environment, they began to advocate for reforms through the ballot box and general public sentiment. This has led to the election and overhaul of policies related to environmental conservation and is the direct result of information gleaned from experts on the news.

Some argue, correctly, that the news is not always reliable. Individuals and organizations are constantly attempting to manipulate data to their advantage. The recent rise of online news is an excellent example of this. Online communication is published almost immediately and is far more likely to contain errors than verified information published in newspapers. Retractions are rarely read in newspapers, and they are practically unheard of in online news, despite their increasing frequency. This is a direct result of how people today consume information. However, readers can avoid this by only trusting reputable sources such as The New York Times or the BBC, rather than blindly believing every article.

In conclusion, I believe that the merits of staying informed far outweigh any perceived drawbacks. People should take the time to find reliable news sources and vet the articles most pertinent to them.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Advertisements & Needs Q-Some believes that people will purchase a product based on their needs, and advertising is unnecessary. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Advertisements & Needs 

Q-Some believes that people will purchase a product based on their needs, and advertising is unnecessary.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Many people argue that advertisements serve no real purpose because all purchases are motivated by necessity. I'm afraid I disagree with you entirely because ads provide consumers with a minimum quality guarantee and turn wants into needs.

To begin with, advertising is the most direct way to inform customers about the quality of a given product. The advertisement's content is less important than the fact that they could produce, distribute, and, in many cases, obtain a celebrity endorsement. For example, KFC typically signs massive sponsorship deals with the most famous football players, demonstrating their food's continued relevance and quality. Likewise, when a lesser-known company premiers an advertisement, this is evidence that they are generating enough revenue to validate whatever product they sell or service they provide.

Second, advertising does more than meet needs; it creates them. Most people could live more fulfilling lives with fewer products, but advertising stimulates desires by appealing to consumer psychology, and those initial desires become habitual. An excellent example would be the rise of Apple products over the last two decades and the role of advertising in their success. Apple phones and computers are famous for their quality and giving users the feeling that they are part of a community. Stylish advertisements aided their dominance, such as the 'think different' campaign. Also demonstrating their food's continued relevance and quality.

In conclusion, advertising serves a vital role in society. This does not mean that it should not be regulated, simply that consumers and officials should be mindful of the total contribution of advertisers.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 An International Language Q-Some believes that we should invent a new language for international communication. -Do the advantages of this outweigh the disadvantages?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

An International Language

Q-Some believes that we should invent a new language for international communication.

-Do the advantages of this outweigh the disadvantages?

Recently, there have been calls to implement a new language to facilitate global communication. Though this would result in a more level playing field in economics, it is impractical.

Those who advocate for an international language do so for economic reasons. However, the main point is that it would lower the barriers to success. At the moment, English is close to becoming a universal language, and those born in English-speaking countries have a clear advantage, whereas those born in non-English countries, who cannot afford private instruction, begin life at a disadvantage. These disparities would be erased by learning a new language. An added advantage of minimizing the value of English would be that developing countries could integrate more deeply with the global market and be better able to extend services, entertainment, and products to a broader audience.

The disadvantages of this proposal, on the other hand, are all related to its feasibility. A global language would be ideal in an ideal world, but it would take time and money to develop. The progress of English, the world's current dominant language, is the best example of this. Countries worldwide invest money and time in English education, but the majority of the world's population is still unable to master the language. A new language would be even more challenging to learn, not only because everyone on the planet would have to learn it, but also because there would be little incentive if you could already communicate with your neighbors. English allows you to communicate with a large portion of the world's population. Furthermore, the money and time resources required are staggering, unrealistic, and would be detrimental to both individuals and society.

The disadvantages of learning an international language far outweigh any perceived benefits. So instead, countries should continue to fund English education to establish it as a lingua franca.



IELTS WRITING TASK 2-Foreign Languages Q-Living in a country where you have to speak a foreign language can cause severe social and practical problems. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2-Foreign Languages 

Q-Living in a country where you have to speak a foreign language can cause severe social and practical problems. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?

ANSWER-The language barrier is one of the most significant social and practical challenges that people living abroad face. I believe that this will cause serious social problems in many countries, but technology has made practical issues less relevant in recent decades.

The breakdown in understanding between people of different cultures is why speaking a foreign language can cause social problems. The most visible example is in the United States, where Hispanic immigrants have been concentrated, particularly along the southern border. These immigrants usually integrate well if they learn English, but those unknown have caused social problems and even violent reactions. Many English-speaking residents resent the immigrants' failure to integrate, which has resulted in discriminatory practices and widespread racism against Hispanics. As a result, many Hispanics have developed a dislike for other residents and have segregated themselves in homogeneous neighborhoods.

Because of the advancement of technology in general, and smartphones in particular, there are fewer practical problems caused by not knowing the language of the country where you live. Computers have made it easier to look up directions, locate essential information, and obtain quick translations. Smartphones have made this even more accessible. If a person does not speak the country's language in which they live, they can still find restaurants that appeal to them on Facebook and get simple directions via Google Maps. They can even order food online without using any other language. If they need to communicate with someone who does not speak their language, they can take out their phone and use Google translate to slowly but effectively convey a message. The problems that were not knowing the country's language where you live causes are minimal and easily overcome.

In conclusion, I only partly agree with the statement in question. Not knowing a language when living abroad can cause social unrest, but recent technology has mitigated pragmatic concerns. As a result, it will become even less important to see the country's language where you live, although there is great potential for increased social unrest and heightened tensions in many parts of the world.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Fast Food Q-In many countries, fast food is becoming cheaper and more widely available. -Do the disadvantages of this outweigh the advantages?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Fast Food

Q-In many countries, fast food is becoming cheaper and more widely available.

-Do the disadvantages of this outweigh the advantages?

Today, many people believe that the prevalence of fast food provides enough enjoyment and economic benefits to outweigh its negative impact on public health. However, the health-related drawbacks, in my opinion, make this a negative development.

Those who support the fast food industry typically point to the pleasure it provides consumers and its employees. In terms of enjoyment, there isn't much to argue about. Fast food is inexpensive and tasty. This explains its popularity and makes it available to people from all socioeconomic backgrounds. Furthermore, there are obvious economic advantages. McDonald's, Burger King, Baskin-Robbins, and Domino's Pizza are among the world's largest employers.

Their financial contributions extend beyond providing poorly paid jobs as they are taxed and thereby strengthen the federal budgets of both developing and developed nations.

Nonetheless, fast food has a significant impact on health. Obesity is the most visible example of this. Obesity rates have been shown in studies to rise in countries where fast food has become entrenched in the local market. The most well-known example is obesity, which has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure are related and often symptomatic drawbacks. Foods high in fat, sugar, and overprocessed ingredients have been shown to aggravate these conditions, with heart disease being the leading cause of death globally. Of course, this cannot be entirely blamed on fast food. Still, there are very few healthy options on most fast food menus, and the majority of companies specialize in quintessentially unhealthy foods like deep-fried chicken, cheeseburgers, pizzas, and tacos.

In conclusion, despite the boons for enjoyment and the economy, fast food is a hostile take, given its impact on well-being. It is therefore essential to regulate fast food companies to curb their influence.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Researching Medical Treatments Q-Research into medical treatments is essential to improve health and fight disease. -Who should fund this research: individuals, private companies, or governments?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2 

Researching Medical Treatments

Q-Research into medical treatments is essential to improve health and fight disease.

-Who should fund this research: individuals, private companies, or governments?

It is undeniably critical for researchers to develop new medical treatments to fight against disease and poor health. However, in my opinion, this research should be funded primarily by governments and well-regulated private companies.

Governments can focus solely on public interests. They are, however, indebted to taxpayers and are responsible for reinvesting that money in various services that benefit the nation. The theory of disease, developed by Louis Pasteur while working for the publicly funded University of Lille in France, is an excellent example of governments' critical role in medical services and treatments. He would not have had the time or resources to conduct his experiments independently. Furthermore, whether a private company would have recognized the commercial value of his work is debatable. Today, government funding works in much the same way to fund medical projects that have no clear path to profit but are extremely important for public health.

On the other hand, governments are slower, under-funded, and less innovative than private corporations. Companies are driven by the desire to make a profit, which causes them to compete, innovate, and pay for the best minds in the field. There is plenty of evidence for this, including advancements in surgical procedures, stem cell therapy, nutrition, pharmaceuticals, cancer research, and emergency medicine. As a result, government-funded projects and hospitals become complacent, whereas private companies must innovate to thrive. Naturally, there is a risk that these companies will charge exorbitant prices and reserve the best medicine for a select, wealthy clientele. As a result, government regulation is required to keep these corporations in check.

Finally, as a creative body and a regulator, the government plays a vital role in medical research. Private companies should not be vilified for exploiting health problems, but they should be held to strict guidelines.


Cambridge 12 ielts reading TEST 2 passage 1 The risks agriculture faces in developing countries READING with answers READING PASSAGE 1 READING PASSAGE 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13 which are based on Reading Passage 1 below. The risks agriculture faces in developing countries

Cambridge 12 ielts reading TEST 2 passage 1

The risks agriculture faces in developing countries

READING with answers

READING PASSAGE 1

READING PASSAGE 1

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13 which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.

The risks agriculture faces in developing countries

Synthesis of an online debate*

A

Two things distinguish food production from all other productive activities: first, every single person needs food each day and has a right to it; and second, it is hugely dependent on nature. These two unique aspects, one political, the other natural, make food production highly vulnerable and different from any other business. At the same time, cultural values are highly entrenched in food and agricultural systems worldwide.

B

Farmers everywhere face major risks, including extreme weather, long-term climate change, and price volatility in input and product markets. However, smallholder farmers in developing countries must in addition deal with adverse environments, both natural, in terms of soil quality, rainfall, etc., and human, in terms of infrastructure, financial systems, markets, knowledge and technology. Counter-intuitively, hunger is prevalent among many smallholder farmers in the developing world.

C

Participants in the online debate argued that our biggest challenge is to address the underlying causes of the agricultural system’s inability to ensure sufficient food for all, and they identified as drivers of this problem our dependency on fossil fuels and unsupportive government policies.

D

On the question of mitigating the risks farmers face, most essayists called for greater state intervention. In his essay, Kanayo F. Nwanze, President of the International Fund for Agricultural Development, argued that governments can significantly reduce risks for farmers by providing basic services like roads to get produce more efficiently to markets, or water and food storage facilities to reduce losses. Sophia Murphy, senior advisor to the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, suggested that the procurement and holding of stocks by governments can also help mitigate wild swings in food prices by alleviating uncertainties about market supply. 

E

Shenggen Fan, Director General of the International Food Policy Research Institute, help up social safety nets and public welfare programmes in Ethiopia, Brazil and Mexico as valuable ways to address poverty among farming families and reduce their vulnerability to agriculture shocks. However, some commentators responded that cash transfers to poor families do not necessarily translate into increased food security, as these programmes do not always strengthen food production or raise incomes. Regarding state subsidies for agriculture, Rokeya Kabir, Executive Director of Bangladesh Nari Progati Sangha, commented in her essay that these ‘have not compensated for the stranglehold exercised by private traders. In fact, studies show that sixty percent of beneficiaries of subsidies are not poor, but rich landowners and non-farmer traders.’

F

Nwanze, Murphy and Fan argued that private risk management tools, like private insurance, commodity futures markets, and rural finance can help small-scale producers mitigate risk and allow for investment in improvements. Kabir warned that financial support schemes often encourage the adoption of high-input agricultural practices, which in the medium term may raise production costs beyond the value of their harvests. Murphy noted that when futures markets become excessively financialised they can contribute to short-term price volatility, which increases farmers’ food insecurity. Many participants and commentators emphasised that greater transparency in markets is needed to mitigate the impact of volatility, and make evident whether adequate stocks and supplies are available. Others contended that agribusiness companies should be held responsible for paying for negative side effects.

G

Many essayists mentioned climate change and its consequences for small-scale agriculture. Fan explained that ‘in addition to reducing crop yields, climate change increases the magnitude and frequency of extreme weather events, which increase smallholder vulnerability.’ The growing unpredictability of weather patterns increases farmers’ difficulty in managing weather-related risks. According to this author, one solution would be to develop crop varieties that are more resilient to new climate trends and extreme weather patterns. Accordingly, Pat Mooney, co-founder and executive director of the ETC Group, suggested that ‘if we are to survive climate change, we must adopt policies that let peasants diversify the plant and animal species and varieties/breeds that make up our menus.’

H

Some participating authors and commentators argued in favour of community-based and autonomous risk management strategies through collective action groups, co-operatives or producers’ groups. Such groups enhance market opportunities for small-scale producers, reduce marketing costs and synchronise buying and selling with seasonal price conditions. According to Murphy, ‘collective action offers an important way for farmers to strengthen their political and economic bargaining power, and to reduce their business risks.’ One commentator, Giel Ton, warned that collective action does not come as a free good. It takes time, effort and money to organise, build trust and to experiment. Others, like Marcel Vernooij and Marcel Beukeboom, suggested that in order to ‘apply what we already know’, all stakeholders, including business, government, scientists and civil society, must work together, starting at the beginning of the value chain.

I

Some participants explained that market price volatility is often worsened by the presence of intermediary purchasers who, taking advantage of farmers’ vulnerability, dictate prices. One commentator suggested farmers can gain greater control over prices and minimise price volatility by selling directly to consumers. Similarly, Sonali Bisht, founder and advisor to the Institute of Himalayan Environmental Research and Education (INHERE), India, wrote that community-supported agriculture, where consumers invest in local farmers by subscription and guarantee producers a fair price, is a risk-sharing model worth more attention. Direct food distribution systems not only encourage small-scale agriculture but also give consumers more control over the food they consume, she wrote.

———————* The personal names in the text refer to the authors of written contributions to the online debate

Questions 1-3

Reading Passage 1 has nine paragraphs, A-I.

Which paragraph contains the following information?

Write the correct letter, A-I, in boxes 1-3 on your answer sheet.

1  a reference to characteristics that only apply to food production

2  a reference to challenges faced only by farmers in certain parts of the world

3  a reference to difficulties in bringing about co-operation between farmers

Questions 4-9

Look at the following statements (Question 4-9) and the list of people below.
Match each statement with the correct person, A-G.

Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes 4-9 on your answer sheet.

NBYou may use any letter more than once.

4  Financial assistance from the government does not always go to the farmers who most need it.

5  Farmers can benefit from collaborating as a group.

6  Financial assistance from the government can improve the standard of living of farmers.

7  Farmers may be helped if there is financial input by the same individuals who buy from them.

8  Governments can help to reduce variation in prices.

9  Improvements to infrastructure can have a major impact on risk for farmers.

List of People

A  Kanayo F. Nwanze
B   Sophia Murphy
C  Shenggen Fan
D  Rokeya Kabir
E  Pat Mooney
F  Giel Ton
G  Sonali Bisht

Questions 10-11

Choose TWO letters, A-E.
Write the correct letters in boxes 10 and 11 on your answer sheet.

Which TWO problems are mentioned which affect farmers with small farms in developing countries?

A  lack of demand for locally produced food

B  lack of irrigation programmes

  being unable to get insurance

D  the effects of changing weather patterns

E  having to sell their goods to intermediary buyers 

Questions 12-13

Choose TWO letters, A-E.
Write the correct letters in boxes 12 and 13 on your answer sheet.

Which TWO actions are recommended for improving conditions for farmers?

A  reducing the size of food stocks

B  attempting to ensure that prices rise at certain times of the year

C  organising co-operation between a wide range of interested parties

D  encouraging consumers to take a financial stake in farming

E  making customers aware of the reasons for changing food prices

  Cambridge 12 Test 2 passage 1 Reading Answers

Passage 1

1. A

2. B

3. H

4. D

5. B

6. C

7. G

8. B

9. A

10. D

11. E

12. C  

13. D


Cambridge 12 ielts reading TEST 1 passage 3 What’s the purpose of gaining knowledge? READING with answers

Cambridge 12 ielts reading TEST 1 passage 3

What’s the purpose of gaining knowledge?

READING with answers

READING PASSAGE 3

READING PASSAGE 3

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.

What’s the purpose of gaining knowledge?

A

‘I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any subject.’ That was the founder’s motto for Cornell University, and it seems an apt characterization of the different university, also in the USA, where I currently teach philosophy. A student can prepare for a career in resort management, engineering, interior design, accounting, music, law enforcement, you name it. But what would the founders of these two institutions have thought of a course called ‘Arson for Profit’? I kid you not: we have it on the books. Any undergraduates who have met the academic requirements can sign up for the course in our program in ‘fire science’.

B

Naturally, the course is intended for prospective arson investigators, who can learn all the tricks of the trade for detecting whether a fire was deliberately set, discovering who did it, and establishing a chain of evidence for effective prosecution in a court of law. But wouldn’t this also be the perfect course for prospective arsonists to sign up for? My point is not to criticize academic programs in fire science: they are highly welcome as part of the increasing professionalization of this and many other occupations. However, it’s not unknown for a firefighter to torch a building. This example suggests how dishonest and illegal behavior, with the help of higher education, can creep into every aspect of public and business life.

C

I realized this anew when I was invited to speak before a class in marketing, which is another of our degree programs. The regular instructor is a colleague who appreciates the kind of ethical perspective. I can bring as a philosopher. There are endless ways I could have approached this assignment, but I took my cue from the title of the course: ‘Principles of Marketing’. It made me think to ask the students, ‘Is marketing principled?’ After all, a subject matter can have principles in the sense of being codified, having rules, as with football or chess, without being principled in the sense of being ethical. Many of the students immediately assumed that the answer to my question about marketing principles was obvious: no. Just look at the ways in which everything under the sun has been marketed; obviously it need to be done in a principled (=ethical) fashion.

D

Is that obvious? I made the suggestion, which may sound downright crazy in light of the evidence, that perhaps marketing is by definition principled. My inspiration for this judgement is the philosopher Immanuel Kant, who argued that any body of knowledge consists of an end (or purpose) and a means.

E

Let us apply both the terms ‘means’ and ‘end’ to marketing. The students have signed up for a course in order to learn how to market effectively. But to what end? There seem to be two main attitudes toward that question. One is that the answer is obvious: the purpose of marketing is to sell things and to make money. The other attitude is that the purpose of marketing is irrelevant: Each person comes to the program and course with his or her own plans, and these need not even concern the acquisition of marketing expertise as such. My proposal, which I believe would also be Kant’s, is that neither of these attitudes captures the significance of the end to the means for marketing. A field of knowledge or a professional endeavor is defined by both the means and the end; hence both deserve scrutiny. Students need to study both how to achieve X, and also what X is.

F

It is at this point that ‘Arson for Profit’ becomes supremely relevant. That course is presumably all about means: how to detect and prosecute criminal activity. It is therefore assumed that the end is good in an ethical sense. When I ask fire science students to articulate the end, or purpose, of their field, they eventually generalize to something like, ‘The safety and welfare of society,’ which seems right. As we have seen, someone could use the very same knowledge of means to achieve a much less noble end such as personal profit via destructive, dangerous, reckless activity. But we would not call that firefighting. We have a separate word for it: arson. Similarly, if you employed the ‘principles of marketing’ is an unprincipled way, you would not be doing marketing. We have another term for it: fraud. Kant gives the example of a doctor and a poisoner, who use the identical knowledge to achieve their divergent ends. We would say that one is practicing medicine, the other, murder.

Questions 27-32

Reading Passage 3 has six sections, A-F.
Choose the correct heading for each section from the list of headings below.

Write the correct number, i-viii, in boxes 27-32 on your answer sheet.

List of Headings

  Courses that require a high level of commitment

ii  A course title with two meanings

iii  The equal importance of two key issues

iv  Applying a theory in an unexpected context

 The financial benefits of studying

vi  A surprising course little

vii   Different names for different outcomes

viii  The possibility of attracting the wrong kind of student

27  Section A

28  Section B

29 Section C

30  Section D

31  Section E

32  Section F

Questions 33-36

Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 33-36 on your answer sheet.

The ‘Arson for Profit’ course

This is a university course intended for students who are undergraduates and who are studying 33………………………. The expectation is that they will become 34…………………………. specialising in arson. The course will help them to detect cases of arson and find 35………………………. of criminal intent, leading to successful 36………………………… in the courts.

Questions 37-40

Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 3?

In boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet, write

YES   if the statement agrees with the views of the writer

NO   if the statement contradicts the views of the writer

NOTGIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

37  It is difficult to attract students onto courses that do not focus on a career.

38  The ‘Arson for Profit’ course would be useful for people intending to set fire to buildings.

39  Fire science courses are too academic to help people to be good at the job of firefighting.

40  The writer’s fire science students provided a detailed definition of the purpose of their studies.

  Cambridge 12 Test 1 passage 3 Reading Answers

Passage 3

27. vi

28. viii

29. ii

30. iv

31. iii

32. vii

33. fire science

34. investigators

35. evidence

36. prosecution

37. NOT GIVEN

38. YES

39. NO

40. NO


CAMBRIDGE 15 IELTS READING TEST 2 PASSAGE 2 SHOULD WE TRY TO BRING EXTINCT SPECIES BACK TO LIFE ? WITH ANSWERS You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26 which are based on Reading Passage 2 below. SHOULD WE TRY TO BRING EXTINCT SPECIES BACK TO LIFE?

CAMBRIDGE 15 IELTS READING TEST 2 PASSAGE 2 SHOULD WE TRY TO BRING EXTINCT SPECIES BACK TO LIFE ? WITH ANSWERS

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26 which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.


SHOULD WE TRY TO BRING EXTINCT SPECIES BACK TO LIFE?

A

The passenger pigeon was a legendary species. Flying in vast numbers across North America, with potentially many millions within a single flock, their migration was once one of nature’s great spectacles. Sadly, the passenger pigeon’s existence came to an end on 1 September 1914, when the last living specimen died at Cincinnati Zoo. Geneticist Ben Novak is lead researcher on an ambitious project which now aims to bring the bird back to life through a process known as ‘de-extinction’. The basic premise involves using cloning technology to turn the DNA of extinct animals into a fertilised embryo, which is carried by the nearest relative still in existence – in this case, the abundant band-tailed pigeon – before being born as a living, breathing animal. Passenger pigeons are one of the pioneering species in this field, but they are far from the only ones on which this cutting-edge technology is being trialled.

B

In Australia, the thylacine, more commonly known as the Tasmanian tiger, is another extinct creature which genetic scientists are striving to bring back to life. ‘There is no carnivore now in Tasmania that fills the niche which thylacines once occupied,’ explains Michael Archer of the University of New South Wales. He points out that in the decades since the thylacine went extinct, there has been a spread in a ‘dangerously debilitating’ facial tumour syndrome which threatens the existence of the Tasmanian devils, the island’s other notorious resident. Thylacines would have prevented this spread because they would have killed significant numbers of Tasmanian devils. ‘If that contagious cancer had popped up previously, it would have burned out in whatever region it started. The return of thylacines to Tasmania could help to ensure that devils are never again subjected to risks of this kind.’

C

If extinct species can be brought back to life, can humanity begin to correct the damage it has caused to the natural world over the past few millennia? ‘The idea of de-extinction is that we can reverse this process, bringing species that no longer exist back to life,’ says Beth Shapiro of University of California Santa Cruz’s Genomics Institute. ‘I don’t think that we can do this. There is no way to bring back something that is 100 per cent identical to a species that went extinct a long time ago.’ A more practical approach for long-extinct species is to take the DNA of existing species as a template, ready for the insertion of strands of extinct animal DNA to create something new; a hybrid, based on the living species, but which looks and/or acts like the animal which died out.

D

This complicated process and questionable outcome begs the question: what is the actual point of this technology? ‘For us, the goal has always been replacing the extinct species with a suitable replacement,’ explains Novak. ‘When it comes to breeding, band-tailed pigeons scatter and make maybe one or two nests per hectare, whereas passenger pigeons were very social and would make 10,000 or more nests in one hectare.’ Since the disappearance of this key species, ecosystems in the eastern US have suffered, as the lack of disturbance caused by thousands of passenger pigeons wrecking trees and branches means there has been minimal need for regrowth. This has left forests stagnant and therefore unwelcoming to the plants and animals which evolved to help regenerate the forest after a disturbance. According to Novak, a hybridized band-tailed pigeon, with the added nesting habits of a passenger pigeon, could, in theory, re-establish that forest disturbance, thereby creating a habitat necessary for a great many other native species to thrive.

E

Another popular candidate for this technology is the woolly mammoth. George Church, professor at Harvard Medical School and leader of the Woolly Mammoth Revival Project, has been focusing on cold resistance, the main way in which the extinct woolly mammoth and its nearest living relative, the Asian elephant, differ. By pinpointing which genetic traits made it possible for mammoths to survive the icy climate of the tundra, the project’s goal is to return mammoths, or a mammoth-like species, to the area. ‘My highest priority would be preserving the endangered Asian elephant,’ says Church, ‘expanding their range to the huge ecosystem of the tundra. Necessary adaptations would include smaller ears, thicker hair, and extra insulating fat, all for the purpose of reducing heat loss in the tundra, and all traits found in the now extinct woolly mammoth.’ This repopulation of the tundra and boreal forests of Eurasia and North America with large mammals could also be a useful factor in reducing carbon emissions – elephants punch holes through snow and knock down trees, which encourages grass growth. This grass growth would reduce temperature, and mitigate emissions from melting permafrost.

F

While the prospect of bringing extinct animals back to life might capture imaginations, it is, of course, far easier to try to save an existing species which is merely threatened with extinction. ‘Many of the technologies that people have in mind when they think about de-extinction can be used as a form of “genetic rescue”,’ explains Shapiro. She prefers to focus the debate on how this emerging technology could be used to fully understand why various species went extinct in the first place, and therefore how we could use it to make genetic modifications that could prevent mass extinctions in the future. ‘I would also say there’s an incredible moral hazard to not do anything at all,’ she continues. ‘We know that what we are doing today is not enough, and we have to be willing to take some calculated and measured risks.’

Questions 14-17

Reading Passage 2 has six paragraphs, A-F.

Which paragraph contains the following information?

Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes 14-17 on your answer sheet.

NB   You may use any letter more than once.

14   a reference to how to further disappearance of multiple species could be avoided.

15   explanation of a way of reproducing an extinct animal using the DNA of only that species

16   reference to a habitat which has suffered following the extinction of a species

17   mention of the exact point at which a particular species became extinct

Questions 18-22

Complete the summary below.

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 18-22 on your answer sheet.

The woolly mammoth revival project

Professor George Church and his team are trying to identify the 18…………………… which enabled mammoths to live in the tundra. The findings could help preserve the mammoth’s close relative, the endangered Asian elephant.

According to the Church, introducing Asian elephants to the tundra would involve certain physical adaptations to minimize 19…………………… To survive in the tundra, the species would need to have the mammoth-like features of thicker hair, 20………………….. of reduced size, and more 21……………………..

Repopulating the tundra with mammoths or Asian elephant/mammoth hybrids would also have an impact on the environment, which could help to reduce temperatures and decrease 22……………………

Questions 23-26

Look at the following statements (Questions 23-26) and the list of people below.

Match each statement with the correct person, A, B or C.

Write the correct letter, A, B or C, in boxes 23-26 on your answer sheet.

NB   You may use any letter more than once.

23   Reintroducing an extinct species to its original habitat could improve the health of a particular species living there.

24   It is important to concentrate on the causes of an animal’s extinction.

25   A species brought back from extinction could have an important beneficial impact on the vegetation of its habitat.

26   Our current efforts at preserving biodiversity are insufficient.

List of People

A     Ben Novak

B     Michael Archer

C      Beth Shapiro

Should we try to bring extinct species back to life? Reading Answers 

14. F
15. A
16. D
17. A
18. genetic traits
19. heat loss
20. ears
21. (insulating) fat
22. (carbon) emissions
23. B
24. C
25. A
26. C


Cambridge 15 ielts reading TEST 1 passage 3 What is exploration? Reading Answers READING PASSAGE 3 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below. WHAT IS EXPLORATION?

Cambridge 15 ielts reading TEST 1 passage 3

What is exploration? Reading Answers 

READING PASSAGE 3

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.

WHAT IS EXPLORATION?

We are all explores. Our desire to discover, and then share that new-found knowledge, is part of what makes us human – indeed, this has played an important part in our success as a species. Long before the first caveman slumped down beside the fire and grunted news that there were plenty of wildebeest over yonder, our ancestors had learnt the value of sending out scouts to investigate the unknown. This questing nature of ours undoubtedly helped our species spread around the globe, just as it nowadays no doubt helps the last nomadic Penan maintain their existence in the depleted forests of Borneo, and a visitor negotiate the subways of New York.

Over the years, we’ve come to think of explorers as a peculiar breed – different from the rest of us, different from those of us who are merely ‘well travelled’, even; and perhaps there is a type of person more suited to seeking out the new, a type of caveman more inclined to risk venturing out. That, however, doesn’t take away from the fact that we all have this enquiring instinct, even today; and that in all sorts of professions – whether artist, marine biologist or astronomer – borders of the unknown are being tested each day.

Thomas Hardy set some of his novels in Egdon Heath, a fictional area of uncultivated land, and used the landscape to suggest the desires and fears of his characters. He is delving into matters we all recognise because they are common to humanity. This is surely an act of exploration, and into a world as remote as the author chooses. Explorer and travel writer Peter Fleming talks of the moment when the explorer returns to the existence he has left behind with his loved ones. The traveller ‘who has for weeks or months seen himself only as a puny and irrelevant alien crawling laboriously over a country in which he has no roots and no background, suddenly encounters his other self, a relatively solid figure, with a place in the minds of certain people’.

In this book about the exploration of the earth’s surface, I have confined myself to those whose travels were real and who also aimed at more than personal discovery. But that still left me with another problem: the word ‘explorer’ has become associated with a past era. We think back to a golden age, as if exploration peaked somehow in the 19th century – as if the process of discovery is now on the decline, though the truth is that we have named only one and a half million of this planet’s species, and there may be more than 10 million – and that’s not including bacteria. We have studied only 5 per cent of the species we know. We have scarcely mapped the ocean floors, and know even less about ourselves; we fully understand the workings of only 10 per cent of our brains.

Here is how some of today’s ‘explorers’ define the word. Ran Fiennes, dubbed the ‘greatest living explorer’, said, ‘An explorer is someone who has done something that no human has done before – and also done something scientifically useful.’ Chris Bonington, a leading mountaineer, felt exploration was to be found in the act of physically touching the unknown: ‘You have to have gone somewhere new.’ Then Robin Hanbury-Tenison, a campaigner on behalf of remote so-called ‘tribal’ peoples, said, ‘A traveller simply records information about some far-off world, and reports back; but an explorer changes the world.’ Wilfred Thesiger, who crossed Arabia’s Empty Quarter in 1946, and belongs to an era of unmechanised travel now lost to the rest of us, told me, ‘If I’d gone across by camel when I could have gone by car, it would have been a stunt.’ To him, exploration meant bringing back information from a remote place regardless of any great self-discovery.

Each definition is slightly different – and tends to reflect the field of endeavour of each pioneer. It was the same whoever I asked: the prominent historian would say exploration was a thing of the past, the cutting-edge scientist would say it was of the present. And so on. They each set their own particular criteria; the common factor in their approach being that they all had, unlike many of us who simply enjoy travel or discovering new things, both a very definite objective from the outset and also a desire to record their findings.

I’d best declare my own bias. As a writer, I’m interested in the exploration of ideas. I’ve done a great many expeditions and each one was unique. I’ve lived for months alone with isolated groups of people all around the world, even two ‘uncontacted tribes’. But none of these things is of the slightest interest to anyone unless, through my books, I’ve found a new slant, explored a new idea. Why? Because the world has moved on. The time has long passed for the great continental voyages – another walk to the poles, another crossing of the Empty Quarter. We know how the land surface of our planet lies; exploration of it is now down to the details – the habits of microbes, say, or the grazing behaviour of buffalo. Aside from the deep sea and deep underground, it’s the era of specialists. However, this is to disregard the role the human mind has in conveying remote places; and this is what interests me: how a fresh interpretation, even of a well-traveled route, can give its readers new insights.




Questions 27-32
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

Write the correct letter in boxes 27-32 on your answer sheet.


27   The writer refers to visitors to New York to illustrate the point that

A   exploration is an intrinsic element of being human.

B   most people are enthusiastic about exploring.

C   exploration can lead to surprising results.

D   most people find exploration daunting.


28   According to the second paragraph, what is the writer’s view of explorers?

A   Their discoveries have brought both benefits and disadvantages.

B   Their main value is in teaching others.

C   They act on an urge that is common to everyone.

D   They tend to be more attracted to certain professions than to others.


29   The writer refers to a description of Egdon Heath to suggest that

A   Hardy was writing about his own experience of exploration.

B   Hardy was mistaken about the nature of exploration.

C   Hardy’s aim was to investigate people’s emotional states.

D   Hardy’s aim was to show the attraction of isolation.


30   In the fourth paragraph, the writer refers to ‘a golden age’ to suggest that

A   the amount of useful information produced by exploration has decreased.

B   fewer people are interested in exploring than in the 19th century.

C   recent developments have made exploration less exciting.

D   we are wrong to think that exploration is no longer necessary.


31   In the sixth paragraph, when discussing the definition of exploration, the writer argues that

A   people tend to relate exploration to their own professional interests.

B   certain people are likely to misunderstand the nature of exploration.

C   the generally accepted definition has changed over time.

D   historians and scientists have more valid definitions than the general public.


32   In the last paragraph, the writer explains that he is interested in

A   how someone’s personality is reflected in their choice of places to visit.

B   the human ability to cast new light on places that may be familiar.

C   how travel writing has evolved to meet changing demands.

D   the feelings that writers develop about the places that they explore.



Questions 33-37
Look at the following statements (Questions 33-37) and the list of explorers below.

Match each statement with the correct explorer, A-E.

Write the correct letter, A-E, in boxes 33-37 on your answer sheet.

NB  You may use any letter more than once.


33   He referred to the relevance of the form of transport used.

34   He described feelings on coming back home after a long journey.

35   He worked for the benefit of specific groups of people.

36   He did not consider learning about oneself an essential part of the exploration.

37   He defined exploration as being both unique and of value to others.

List of Explorers

A     Peter Fleming

B     Ran Fiennes

C     Chris Bonington

D     Robin Hanbury-Tenison

E     Wilfred Thesiger



Questions 38-40
Complete the summary below.

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 38-40 on your answer sheet.

The writer’s own bias

The writer has experience of a large number of 38………………., and was the first stranger that certain previously 39………………… people had encountered. He believes there is no need for further exploration of Earth’s 40…………………., except to answer specific questions such as how buffalo eat.

What is exploration? Reading Answers

27. A
28. C
29. C
30. D
31. A
32. B
33. E
34. A
35. D
36. E
37. B
38. (unique) expeditions
39. uncontacted / isolated
40. (land) surface



Cambridge 12 ielts reading TEST 2 passage 1 The risks agriculture faces in developing countries READING with answers READING PASSAGE 1 READING PASSAGE 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13 which are based on Reading Passage 1 below. The risks agriculture faces in developing countries

Cambridge 12 ielts reading TEST 2 passage 1

The risks agriculture faces in developing countries

READING with answers

READING PASSAGE 1

READING PASSAGE 1

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13 which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.

The risks agriculture faces in developing countries

Synthesis of an online debate*

A

Two things distinguish food production from all other productive activities: first, every single person needs food each day and has a right to it; and second, it is hugely dependent on nature. These two unique aspects, one political, the other natural, make food production highly vulnerable and different from any other business. At the same time, cultural values are highly entrenched in food and agricultural systems worldwide.

B

Farmers everywhere face major risks, including extreme weather, long-term climate change, and price volatility in input and product markets. However, smallholder farmers in developing countries must in addition deal with adverse environments, both natural, in terms of soil quality, rainfall, etc., and human, in terms of infrastructure, financial systems, markets, knowledge and technology. Counter-intuitively, hunger is prevalent among many smallholder farmers in the developing world.

C

Participants in the online debate argued that our biggest challenge is to address the underlying causes of the agricultural system’s inability to ensure sufficient food for all, and they identified as drivers of this problem our dependency on fossil fuels and unsupportive government policies.

D

On the question of mitigating the risks farmers face, most essayists called for greater state intervention. In his essay, Kanayo F. Nwanze, President of the International Fund for Agricultural Development, argued that governments can significantly reduce risks for farmers by providing basic services like roads to get produce more efficiently to markets, or water and food storage facilities to reduce losses. Sophia Murphy, senior advisor to the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, suggested that the procurement and holding of stocks by governments can also help mitigate wild swings in food prices by alleviating uncertainties about market supply. 

E

Shenggen Fan, Director General of the International Food Policy Research Institute, help up social safety nets and public welfare programmes in Ethiopia, Brazil and Mexico as valuable ways to address poverty among farming families and reduce their vulnerability to agriculture shocks. However, some commentators responded that cash transfers to poor families do not necessarily translate into increased food security, as these programmes do not always strengthen food production or raise incomes. Regarding state subsidies for agriculture, Rokeya Kabir, Executive Director of Bangladesh Nari Progati Sangha, commented in her essay that these ‘have not compensated for the stranglehold exercised by private traders. In fact, studies show that sixty percent of beneficiaries of subsidies are not poor, but rich landowners and non-farmer traders.’

F

Nwanze, Murphy and Fan argued that private risk management tools, like private insurance, commodity futures markets, and rural finance can help small-scale producers mitigate risk and allow for investment in improvements. Kabir warned that financial support schemes often encourage the adoption of high-input agricultural practices, which in the medium term may raise production costs beyond the value of their harvests. Murphy noted that when futures markets become excessively financialised they can contribute to short-term price volatility, which increases farmers’ food insecurity. Many participants and commentators emphasised that greater transparency in markets is needed to mitigate the impact of volatility, and make evident whether adequate stocks and supplies are available. Others contended that agribusiness companies should be held responsible for paying for negative side effects.

G

Many essayists mentioned climate change and its consequences for small-scale agriculture. Fan explained that ‘in addition to reducing crop yields, climate change increases the magnitude and frequency of extreme weather events, which increase smallholder vulnerability.’ The growing unpredictability of weather patterns increases farmers’ difficulty in managing weather-related risks. According to this author, one solution would be to develop crop varieties that are more resilient to new climate trends and extreme weather patterns. Accordingly, Pat Mooney, co-founder and executive director of the ETC Group, suggested that ‘if we are to survive climate change, we must adopt policies that let peasants diversify the plant and animal species and varieties/breeds that make up our menus.’

H

Some participating authors and commentators argued in favour of community-based and autonomous risk management strategies through collective action groups, co-operatives or producers’ groups. Such groups enhance market opportunities for small-scale producers, reduce marketing costs and synchronise buying and selling with seasonal price conditions. According to Murphy, ‘collective action offers an important way for farmers to strengthen their political and economic bargaining power, and to reduce their business risks.’ One commentator, Giel Ton, warned that collective action does not come as a free good. It takes time, effort and money to organise, build trust and to experiment. Others, like Marcel Vernooij and Marcel Beukeboom, suggested that in order to ‘apply what we already know’, all stakeholders, including business, government, scientists and civil society, must work together, starting at the beginning of the value chain.

I

Some participants explained that market price volatility is often worsened by the presence of intermediary purchasers who, taking advantage of farmers’ vulnerability, dictate prices. One commentator suggested farmers can gain greater control over prices and minimise price volatility by selling directly to consumers. Similarly, Sonali Bisht, founder and advisor to the Institute of Himalayan Environmental Research and Education (INHERE), India, wrote that community-supported agriculture, where consumers invest in local farmers by subscription and guarantee producers a fair price, is a risk-sharing model worth more attention. Direct food distribution systems not only encourage small-scale agriculture but also give consumers more control over the food they consume, she wrote.

———————* The personal names in the text refer to the authors of written contributions to the online debate

Questions 1-3

Reading Passage 1 has nine paragraphs, A-I.

Which paragraph contains the following information?

Write the correct letter, A-I, in boxes 1-3 on your answer sheet.

1  a reference to characteristics that only apply to food production

2  a reference to challenges faced only by farmers in certain parts of the world

3  a reference to difficulties in bringing about co-operation between farmers

Questions 4-9

Look at the following statements (Question 4-9) and the list of people below.
Match each statement with the correct person, A-G.

Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes 4-9 on your answer sheet.

NBYou may use any letter more than once.

4  Financial assistance from the government does not always go to the farmers who most need it.

5  Farmers can benefit from collaborating as a group.

6  Financial assistance from the government can improve the standard of living of farmers.

7  Farmers may be helped if there is financial input by the same individuals who buy from them.

8  Governments can help to reduce variation in prices.

9  Improvements to infrastructure can have a major impact on risk for farmers.

List of People

A  Kanayo F. Nwanze
B   Sophia Murphy
C  Shenggen Fan
D  Rokeya Kabir
E  Pat Mooney
F  Giel Ton
G  Sonali Bisht

Questions 10-11

Choose TWO letters, A-E.
Write the correct letters in boxes 10 and 11 on your answer sheet.

Which TWO problems are mentioned which affect farmers with small farms in developing countries?

A  lack of demand for locally produced food

B  lack of irrigation programmes

  being unable to get insurance

D  the effects of changing weather patterns

E  having to sell their goods to intermediary buyers 

Questions 12-13

Choose TWO letters, A-E.
Write the correct letters in boxes 12 and 13 on your answer sheet.

Which TWO actions are recommended for improving conditions for farmers?

A  reducing the size of food stocks

B  attempting to ensure that prices rise at certain times of the year

C  organising co-operation between a wide range of interested parties

D  encouraging consumers to take a financial stake in farming

E  making customers aware of the reasons for changing food prices

  Cambridge 12 Test 2 passage 1 Reading Answers

Passage 1

1. A

2. B

3. H

4. D

5. B

6. C

7. G

8. B

9. A

10. D

11. E

12. C  

13. D


Cambridge 12 ielts reading TEST 1 passage 3 What’s the purpose of gaining knowledge? READING with answers READING PASSAGE 3 READING PASSAGE 3 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below. What’s the purpose of gaining knowledge?

Cambridge 12 ielts reading TEST 1 passage 3

What’s the purpose of gaining knowledge?

READING with answers

READING PASSAGE 3

READING PASSAGE 3

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.

What’s the purpose of gaining knowledge?

A

‘I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any subject.’ That was the founder’s motto for Cornell University, and it seems an apt characterization of the different university, also in the USA, where I currently teach philosophy. A student can prepare for a career in resort management, engineering, interior design, accounting, music, law enforcement, you name it. But what would the founders of these two institutions have thought of a course called ‘Arson for Profit’? I kid you not: we have it on the books. Any undergraduates who have met the academic requirements can sign up for the course in our program in ‘fire science’.

B

Naturally, the course is intended for prospective arson investigators, who can learn all the tricks of the trade for detecting whether a fire was deliberately set, discovering who did it, and establishing a chain of evidence for effective prosecution in a court of law. But wouldn’t this also be the perfect course for prospective arsonists to sign up for? My point is not to criticize academic programs in fire science: they are highly welcome as part of the increasing professionalization of this and many other occupations. However, it’s not unknown for a firefighter to torch a building. This example suggests how dishonest and illegal behavior, with the help of higher education, can creep into every aspect of public and business life.

C

I realized this anew when I was invited to speak before a class in marketing, which is another of our degree programs. The regular instructor is a colleague who appreciates the kind of ethical perspective. I can bring as a philosopher. There are endless ways I could have approached this assignment, but I took my cue from the title of the course: ‘Principles of Marketing’. It made me think to ask the students, ‘Is marketing principled?’ After all, a subject matter can have principles in the sense of being codified, having rules, as with football or chess, without being principled in the sense of being ethical. Many of the students immediately assumed that the answer to my question about marketing principles was obvious: no. Just look at the ways in which everything under the sun has been marketed; obviously it need to be done in a principled (=ethical) fashion.

D

Is that obvious? I made the suggestion, which may sound downright crazy in light of the evidence, that perhaps marketing is by definition principled. My inspiration for this judgement is the philosopher Immanuel Kant, who argued that any body of knowledge consists of an end (or purpose) and a means.

E

Let us apply both the terms ‘means’ and ‘end’ to marketing. The students have signed up for a course in order to learn how to market effectively. But to what end? There seem to be two main attitudes toward that question. One is that the answer is obvious: the purpose of marketing is to sell things and to make money. The other attitude is that the purpose of marketing is irrelevant: Each person comes to the program and course with his or her own plans, and these need not even concern the acquisition of marketing expertise as such. My proposal, which I believe would also be Kant’s, is that neither of these attitudes captures the significance of the end to the means for marketing. A field of knowledge or a professional endeavor is defined by both the means and the end; hence both deserve scrutiny. Students need to study both how to achieve X, and also what X is.

F

It is at this point that ‘Arson for Profit’ becomes supremely relevant. That course is presumably all about means: how to detect and prosecute criminal activity. It is therefore assumed that the end is good in an ethical sense. When I ask fire science students to articulate the end, or purpose, of their field, they eventually generalize to something like, ‘The safety and welfare of society,’ which seems right. As we have seen, someone could use the very same knowledge of means to achieve a much less noble end such as personal profit via destructive, dangerous, reckless activity. But we would not call that firefighting. We have a separate word for it: arson. Similarly, if you employed the ‘principles of marketing’ is an unprincipled way, you would not be doing marketing. We have another term for it: fraud. Kant gives the example of a doctor and a poisoner, who use the identical knowledge to achieve their divergent ends. We would say that one is practicing medicine, the other, murder.

Questions 27-32

Reading Passage 3 has six sections, A-F.
Choose the correct heading for each section from the list of headings below.

Write the correct number, i-viii, in boxes 27-32 on your answer sheet.

List of Headings

  Courses that require a high level of commitment

ii  A course title with two meanings

iii  The equal importance of two key issues

iv  Applying a theory in an unexpected context

 The financial benefits of studying

vi  A surprising course little

vii   Different names for different outcomes

viii  The possibility of attracting the wrong kind of student

27  Section A

28  Section B

29 Section C

30  Section D

31  Section E

32  Section F

Questions 33-36

Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 33-36 on your answer sheet.

The ‘Arson for Profit’ course

This is a university course intended for students who are undergraduates and who are studying 33………………………. The expectation is that they will become 34…………………………. specialising in arson. The course will help them to detect cases of arson and find 35………………………. of criminal intent, leading to successful 36………………………… in the courts.

Questions 37-40

Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 3?

In boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet, write

YES   if the statement agrees with the views of the writer

NO   if the statement contradicts the views of the writer

NOTGIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

37  It is difficult to attract students onto courses that do not focus on a career.

38  The ‘Arson for Profit’ course would be useful for people intending to set fire to buildings.

39  Fire science courses are too academic to help people to be good at the job of firefighting.

40  The writer’s fire science students provided a detailed definition of the purpose of their studies.

  Cambridge 12 Test 1 passage 3 Reading Answers

Passage 3

27. vi

28. viii

29. ii

30. iv

31. iii

32. vii

33. fire science

34. investigators

35. evidence

36. prosecution

37. NOT GIVEN

38. YES

39. NO

40. NO


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Female Leaders Q-Throughout history, male leaders have led us into violence and conflict. If female leaders govern society, it will be more peaceful. -To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Female Leaders

Q-Throughout history, male leaders have led us into violence and conflict. If female leaders govern society, it will be more peaceful.

-To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?

ANSWER-Many people believe that the male propensity for violence is at the root of many international conflicts and that societies ruled by women may be more peaceful. This, in my opinion, is most likely correct.

Some object to this ostensibly sexist viewpoint because of previous examples of female leaders. Although the sample size is much smaller, leaders such as Margaret Thatcher, Cleopatra, Hillary Clinton, Condoleezza Rice, Queen Elisabeth I, Joan of Arc, and countless others have initiated, maintained, and escalated violent conflicts. There are few examples of peaceful female leaders, and those that do exist are proportionate to male leaders. Historical evidence does not support the claim that women are more relaxed. Historical evidence does not support the claim that women are more delicate. One important caveat is that these are exceptions, and women rulers have held power in a world dominated by a male hierarchy. It is impossible to predict how peaceful the world would be if women held the highest positions of power.

Furthermore, men are predisposed to be aggressive by nature. This is a result of both biology and society. Men have higher testosterone levels than women, linked to increased aggressive and violent behavior. This instinct can be suppressed in men, but it has the potential to undermine their better nature at any time. There are also societal forces at work that exploit men's self-esteem. Boys are raised from a young age to be tough, not back down, not compromise, and idolize violent heroes. As a result, most male role models, from historical figures to action stars and even videogame characters, are violent. It is hard to disentangle the roles of nature and nurture clearly, but the end product of their combination is clear for both males and females.

In conclusion, males are more violent, and women would likely be more peaceful given the opportunity to rule widely. The desirability of ending all conflicts and their global impact is another matter.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Parents Spending Time with Kids Q-Many parents today do not spend much time with their children. Why is this? -Does this affect parents or children more?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Parents Spending Time with Kids

Q-Many parents today do not spend much time with their children.

Why is this?

-Does this affect parents or children more?

It is becoming increasingly common for parents to spend less and less time with their children these days. In my opinion, this is because of some distinctly modern distractions and has a far more significant effect on children.

Both parents and children are vulnerable to today's consumer electronics. Parents and children might have been distracted by television or a good book, but they were also likely to play a board game together or go for a walk. This started to change with the advent of the internet and portable devices. Many children only care about using their phones or tablet to play games or watch Netflix. Parents are similarly addicted to games, entertainment, and the allure of social media. This inclination towards passive entertainment persists even when taking their children out because phones often demand most of their attention though parents are physically present.

This primarily impacts children as they are more impressionable. Research has shown that most of an individual's personality and habits are formed early in life. If a parent neglects a child in favor of their desires, then they are likely to either act out seeking attention or withdraw into their shell. The child in question might lack the supportive and unconditional love that is essential for a healthy upbringing and assume and repeat the negative behaviors of their role models. Many children overcompensate for their parent's implicit rejection by numbing themselves by retreating into books, television, YouTube, social media, or whatever will give them the attention they crave. This long-cultivated trauma can even follow them throughout adulthood.

In conclusion, the growth of consumer electronics is a source of parental neglect, and it mainly impairs children's mental health. Therefore, parents must take it on themselves today to find ways to counter the dangerous implications of trading their children's well-being for a sustained glance at a screen.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Plastic Containers Q-In many countries, plastic containers have become more common than ever and are used by many foods and drink companies. Do you think the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Plastic Containers

Q-In many countries, plastic containers have become more common than ever and are used by many foods and drink companies.

Do you think the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?

ANSWER

In recent decades, plastic containers for various food products have become commonplace. Though there may be environmental consequences, I believe the benefits to businesses and individuals outweigh them.

The environmental cost of single-use plastic containers is enormous. Before introducing plastics, foods and beverages were packaged in biodegradable, eco-friendly paper or cardboard. However, the introduction of plastics has had a significant impact on the environment on two fronts. To begin with, plastic is a byproduct of fossil fuels that requires crude oil for production and later transportation. The emissions from fossil fuels are frequently cited as the primary contributor to the acceleration of climate change. Furthermore, the containers either end up in landfills, pollute previously pristine land, or end up in the ocean, forming 'land masses' that harm marine life.

Nonetheless, the drawbacks mentioned above of plastic containers do not outweigh their utility. Plastic containers are inexpensive and provide uniform consistency for businesses. As a result, companies have adopted them, ranging from fast-food behemoths like McDonald's to small-town grocery stores. These savings are then passed on to the consumer, who benefits from lower prices and the many advantages of plastic containers. For example, they are less likely to rip open and spill than paper, and most families use them afterward for leftover food. People would lose these conveniences if plastic food containers were banned, but many companies would have to change their packaging and products drastically.

To summarise, the environmental impact of plastic containers has little effect on their value for both corporations and the average customer. Instead, it is critical to investigate new ways to make plastics more environmentally friendly.



IELTS WRITING TASK 2 The Next Generation Q-Some thinks the current generation should take steps to protect the environment for the next generation. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

The Next Generation

Q-Some thinks the current generation should take steps to protect the environment for the next generation.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

ANSWER

Many environmentalists feel that people today are responsible for ensuring the Earth is left in good condition for future generations. Though this duty is unfair, it is nonetheless a burden that must be taken up.

Those who argue against this sentiment can justly assign blame elsewhere. The main contributors to climate change and the current cataclysmic warnings were the considerable industrial powers in the 20th century. Automobiles and air travel became commonplace in the last century, and they are two significant drivers of the fossil fuel consumption that many scientists attribute to global warming. Population growth and medical advances have also contributed significantly to the overproduction and mass consumption that characterize the twenty-first century. It is objectively unfair that people today, particularly the younger generation just entering the labor force, should suffer due to the rashness of industrialization.

Regardless, the current generation's responsibility is to heed these potentially dire warnings. People in the past were either intentionally or unintentionally unaware of the consequences of their actions, but such excuses are no longer acceptable. For example, the rapidly deteriorating polar ice caps directly impact animals' natural habitats worldwide. Some climate scientists believe that an increase in natural disasters is also linked to this and other artificial changes to the ecosystem. Past generations who set the world on this path cannot return to correct their mistakes, and future generations will resent the current one if drastic reforms are not implemented.

To summarise, while people today bear little responsibility for climate change, they must commit to mitigating its effects. Leaving this problem for future generations puts them in an unwinnable situation.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Some today argues that schools are no longer necessary because children can learn so much from the internet and be educated at home. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Some today argues that schools are no longer necessary because children can learn so much from the internet and be educated at home.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

ANSWER

Some would argue that the internet has sufficiently supplanted traditional education to render it obsolete. Though the internet expands learning opportunities, schools, in my opinion, serve as a critical filter.

The internet differs from other technological advances in education in that it provides greater access to information. It is not an exaggeration to say that nearly everything can be found online. School-aged children can watch educational videos on YouTube, read online articles, and use interactive learning platforms. As they grow older, their options expand to include scholarly articles, video-conferencing platforms such as Zoom, and online newspapers from every country globally that can be translated into your native language in modern internet browsers. Furthermore, there is enormous potential for self-directed learners and parents who choose to homeschool their children.

Nonetheless, schools serve as the internet's real-world editors. A lot of news is disseminated quickly and without being thoroughly vetted. Students may be led astray by websites specializing in sensationalized propaganda on the alt-left and right. Children and teenagers are especially vulnerable to what they read online because they are less skeptical. Teachers have more life experience, and their education prepares them to think critically about information. They can then pass on these skills to their students by teaching them how to read closely, identify biases, and verify data from various primary and secondary sources. Students who do not have teachers are more likely to be imbued than educated.

Finally, teachers are critical in dispelling the inherent risks of untrustworthy online information. To assess the value of the internet for learning, schools and administrators should take a long-term perspective.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Focus on Single Subjects Q-Some educational systems make students study specialized subjects from fifteen, while others require students to explore a wide range. -Discuss both sides and give your own opinion.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Focus on Single Subjects

Q-Some educational systems make students study specialized subjects from fifteen, while others require students to explore a wide range.

-Discuss both sides and give your own opinion.

ANSWER

Today, many educational reformers advocate for a more focused curriculum for students aged 15 and up. While this is part of a decidedly modern trend toward early specialization, I believe that a broad range of knowledge serves as a foundation for more well-adjusted adults.

Subjects should be limited from 15 onwards to allow for greater focus. Many children, for example, choose a single musical instrument or participate in a single sport from the start of elementary school. The logic is that spending more time in one domain inevitably leads to mastery, supported by research on the importance of practice for elite performers. Furthermore, many famous examples of people who focused from adolescence and found success, such as The Beatles' band members with music and Steve Jobs with computer technology. As a result, limiting subjects after 15 is one way to protect a child's future.

The famous examples above, however, are contradicted by the majority of research, which shows that a diverse set of skills and interests is a better predictor of future success for most people. According to research, a diverse skillset allows for greater creativity and a more even temperament. The average high school student must study valuable subjects such as math and various science disciplines. Still, they must also take music, art, and home economics and choose their electives. They may never become professional musicians, but opening up that side of their brain can help them be more creative in another field and feel like their education is well-rounded. Without dabbling in these allegedly useless subjects, they might feel harnessed to a single career and purpose, unable to exercise autonomy over their own life.

In conclusion, studying a range of subjects after 15 leads to better results in general. Moreover, a complete syllabus furnishes happier individual citizens and contributes to a more affluent society.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Modern children are suffering from diseases that were once considered to be meant for adults only. For example, obesity is a significant disease prevalent among children. -What are its causes, and what solutions can be offered?

 IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Modern children are suffering from diseases that were once considered to be meant for adults only. For example, obesity is a significant disease prevalent among children. 

-What are its causes, and what solutions can be offered?

Obesity in children and adults has become a global health concern in recent years. Obesity is a serious issue that is becoming more prevalent among school-aged youngsters. There are several causes for this. The reasons for obesity will be discussed in this essay, as well as some possible treatments. Junk food is the primary cause of obesity. Burgers, pizzas, noodles, and cola are frequently seen as favorites among children. This is because they get access to these types of foods in school canteens. For lunch, children enjoy buying chips, candy, and ice cream.

Furthermore, in today's world, parents work and do not have time to cook at home. As a result, parents frequently purchase meals for their children rather than preparing them at home. Obesity is a result of this calorie-dense diet. This issue can be addressed by teaching youngsters how to prepare nutritious foods and prohibiting the consumption of junk foods and carbonated beverages in schools. For lunch, milk, juice, and fruits can be substituted.

Sedentary behavior is the second cause of obesity. Children are increasingly using computers and watching television. They spend most of their time watching television or playing computer games. The degree of physical activity in this age group has decreased as a result of technological innovation. This problem can be overcome by encouraging children to engage in physical activity. Parents can take their children to the park, for example, to play with their friends. Furthermore, schools can incorporate sports into their curriculum to help pupils maintain their physical condition.

To summarise, lousy eating habits and a lack of physical activity are the major causes of obesity. Conversely, healthy eating habits and physical activity can help to prevent and treat this condition.


Cambridge 14 ielts reading TEST 2 passage 1 Alexander Henderson (1831-1913)

Cambridge 14 ielts reading TEST 2 passage 1

Alexander Henderson (1831-1913)

READING with answers

READING PASSAGE 1

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13 which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.

Alexander Henderson (1831-1913)

Born in Scotland, Henderson emigrated to Canada in 1855 and become a well-known landscape photographer

Alexander Henderson was born in Scotland in 1831 and was the son of a successful merchant. His grandfather, also called Alexander, had founded the family business, and later became the first chairman of the National Bank of Scotland. The family had extensive landholding in Scotland. Besides its residence in Edinburgh, it owned Press Estate, 650 acres of farmland about 35 miles southeast of the city. The family often stayed at Press Castle, the large mansion on the northern edge of the property, and Alexander spent much of his childhood in the area, playing on the beach near Eyemouth or fishing in the streams nearby.

Even after he went to school at Murcheston Academy on the outskirts of Edinburgh, Henderson returned to Press at weekends. In 1849 he began a three-year apprenticeship to become an accountant. Although he never liked the prospect of a business career, he stayed with it to please his family. In October 1855, however, he emigrated to Canada with his wife Agnes Elder Robertson and they settled in Montreal.

Henderson learned photography in Montreal around the year 1857 and quickly took it up as a serious amateur. He became a personal friend and colleague of the Scottish – Canadian photographer William Notman. The two men made a photographic excursion to Niagara Falls in 1860 and they cooperated on experiments with magnesium flares as a source of artificial light in 1865. They belonged to the same societies and were among the founding members of the Art Association of Montreal. Henderson acted as chairman of the association’s first meeting, which was held in Notman’s studio on 11 January 1860.

In spite of their friendship, their styles of photography were quite different. While Notman’s landscapes were noted for their bold realism, Henderson for the first 20 years of his career produced romantic images, showing the strong influence of the British landscape tradition. His artistic and technical progress was rapid and in 1865 he published his first major collection of landscape photographs. The publication had limited circulation (only seven copies have ever been found) and was called Canadian Views and Studies. The contents of each copy vary significantly and have proved a useful source for evaluating Henderson’s early work.

In 1866, he gave up his business to open a photographic studio, advertising himself as a portrait and landscape photographer. From about 1870 he dropped portraiture to specialize in landscape photography and other views. His numerous photographs of city life revealed in street scenes, houses, and markets are alive with human activity, and although his favorite subject was the landscape he usually composed his scenes around such human pursuits as farming the land, cutting ice on a river, or sailing down a woodland stream. There was sufficient demand for these types of scenes and others he took depicting the lumber trade, steamboats, and waterfalls to enable him to make a living. There was a little competing hobby or amateur photography before the late 1880s because of the time-consuming techniques involved and the weight of equipment. People wanted to buy photographs as souvenirs of a trip or as gifts, and catering to this market, Henderson had stock photographs on display at his studio for mounting, framing, or inclusion in albums.

Henderson frequently exhibited his photographs in Montreal and abroad, in London, Edinburgh, Dublin, Paris, New York, and Philadelphia. He met with greater success in 1877 and 1878 in New York when he won first prizes in the exhibition held by E and H T Anthony and Company for landscapes using the Lambertype process. In 1878 his work won second prize at the world exhibition in Paris.

In the 1890s and 1880s, Henderson traveled widely throughout Quebec and Ontario, in Canada, documenting the major cities of the two provinces and many of the villages in Quebec. He was especially fond of the wilderness and often traveled by canoe on the Blanche, du Lièvre, and other noted eastern rivers. He went on several occasions to the Maritimes and in 1872 he sailed by yacht along the lower north shore of the St Lawrence River. That same year, while in the lower St Lawrence River region, he took some photographs of the construction of the Intercolonial Railway. This undertaking led in 1875 to a commission from the railway to record the principal structures along the almost-completed line connecting Montreal to Halifax. Commissions from other railways followed. In 1876 he photographed bridges on the Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa and Occidental Railway between Montreal and Ottawa. In 1885 he went west along the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) as far as Rogers Pass in British Columbia, where he took photographs of the mountains and the progress of construction.

In 1892 Henderson accepted a full-time position with the CPR as manager of a photographic department which he was to set up and administer. His duties included spending four months in the field each year. That summer he made his second trip west, photographing extensively along the railway line as far as Victoria. He continued in this post until 1897 when he retired completely from photography.

When Henderson died in 1913, his huge collection of glass negatives was stored in the basement of his house. Today collections of his work are held at the National Archives of Canada, Ottawa, and the McCord Museum of Canadian History, Montreal.




Questions 1-8
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?
In boxes 1-8 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE               if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE              if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN    if there is no information on this

1   Henderson rarely visited the area around Press estate when he was younger.

2   Henderson pursued a business career because it was what his family wanted.

3   Henderson and Notman were surprised by the results of their 1865 experiment.

4   There were many similarities between Henderson’s early landscapes and those of Notman.

5   The studio that Henderson opened in 1866 was close to his home.

6   Henderson gave up portraiture so that he could focus on taking photographs of scenery.

7   When Henderson began work for the Intercolonial Railway, the Montreal to Halifax line had been finished.

8   Henderson’s last work as a photographer was with the Canadian Pacific Railway.



Questions 9-13
Complete the notes below
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet.

Alexander Henderson
Early life

•     was born in Scotland in 1831 – father was a 9 …………………………

•     trained as an accountant, emigrated to Canada in 1855

Start of a photographic career

•     opened up a photographic studio in 1866

•     took photos of city life, but preferred landscape photography

•     people bought Henderson’s photos because photography took up considerable time and the 10 ……………………… was heavy

•     the photographs Henderson sold were 11 …………………………… or souvenirs

Travelling as a professional photographer

•     travelled widely in Quebec and Ontario in the 1870s and 1880s

•     took many trips along eastern rivers in a 12…………………………..

•     worked for Canadian railways between 1875 and 1897

•     worked for CPR in 1885 and photographed the 13 …………………………… and the railway at Rogers Pass
Alexander Henderson Reading Answers 
Cambridge 14 Test 2
1. FALSE
2. TRUE
3. NOT GIVEN
4. FALSE
5. NOT GIVEN
6. TRUE
7. FALSE
8. TRUE
9. merchant
10. equipment
11. gifts
12. canoe
13. mountains


Cambridge 14 ielts reading TEST 1 passage 3 MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS AND THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY READING with answers

Cambridge 14 ielts reading TEST 1 passage 3

MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS AND THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

READING with answers

READING PASSAGE 3


You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.

MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS AND THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

A critical ingredient in the success of hotels is developing and maintaining superior performance from their employees. How is that accomplished? What Human Resource Management (HRM) practices should organizations invest in to acquire and retain great employees?

Some hotels aim to provide superior working conditions for their employees. The idea originated from workplaces – usually in the non-service sector – that emphasized fun and enjoyment as part of work-life balance. By contrast, the service sector, and more specifically hotels, has traditionally not extended these practices to address basic employee needs, such as good working conditions.

Pfeffer (1994) emphasizes that in order to succeed in a global business environment, organizations must make an investment in Human Resource Management (HRM) to allow them to acquire employees who possess better skills and capabilities than their competitors. This investment will be to their competitive advantage. Despite this recognition of the importance of employee development, the hospitality industry has historically been dominated by underdeveloped HR practices (Lucas, 2002).

Lucas also points out that ‘the substance of HRM practices does not appear to be designed to foster constructive relations with employees or to represent a managerial approach that enables developing and drawing out the full potential of people, even though employees  may be broadly satisfied with many aspects of their work’ (Lucas, 2002). In addition, or maybe as a result, high employee turnover has been a recurring problem throughout the hospitality industry. Among the many cited reasons are low compensation, inadequate benefits, poor working conditions and compromised employee morale and attitudes (Maroudas et al., 2008).

Ng and Sorensen (2008) demonstrated that when managers provide recognition to employees, motivate employees to work together, and remove obstacles preventing effective performance, employees feel more obligated to stay with the company. This was succinctly summarized by Michel et al. (2013): ‘[P]roviding support to employees gives them the confidence to perform their jobs better and the motivation to stay with the organization.’ Hospitality organizations can, therefore, enhance employee motivation and retention through the development and improvement of their working conditions. These conditions are inherently linked to the working environment.

While it seems likely that employees’ reactions to their job characteristics could be affected by a predisposition to view their work environment negatively, no evidence exists to support this hypothesis (Spector et al., 2000). However, given the opportunity, many people will find something to complain about in relation to their workplace (Poulston, 2009). There is a strong link between the perceptions of employees and particular factors of their work environment that are separate from the work itself, including company policies, salary, and vacations.

Such conditions are particularly troubling for the luxury hotel market, where high-quality service, requiring a sophisticated approach to HRM, is recognized as a critical source of competitive advantage (Maroudas et al., 2008). In a real sense, the services of hotel employees represent their industry (Schneider and Bowen, 1993). This representation has commonly been limited to guest experiences. This suggests that there has been a dichotomy between the guest environment provided in luxury hotels and the working conditions of their employees.

It is therefore essential for hotel management to develop HRM practices that enable them to inspire and retain competent employees. This requires an understanding of what motivates employees at different levels of management and different stages of their careers (Enz and Siguaw, 2000). This implies that it is beneficial for hotel managers to understand what practices are most favorable to increase employee satisfaction and retention.

Herzberg (1966) proposes that people have two major types of needs, the first being extrinsic motivation factors relating to the context in which work is performed, rather than the work itself. These include working conditions and job security. When these factors are unfavorable, job dissatisfaction may result. Significantly, though, just fulfilling these needs does not result in satisfaction, but only in the reduction of dissatisfaction (Maroudas et al., 2008).

Employees also have intrinsic motivation needs or motivators, which include such factors as achievement and recognition. Unlike extrinsic factors, motivator factors may ideally result in job satisfaction (Maroudas et al., 2008). Herzberg’s (1966) theory discusses the need for a ‘balance’ of these two types of needs.

The impact of fun as a motivating factor at work has also been explored. For example, Tews, Michel, and Stafford (2013) conducted a study focusing on staff from a chain of themed restaurants in the United States. It was found that fun activities had a favorable impact on performance and management support for fun had a favorable impact in reducing turnover. Their findings support the view that fun may indeed have a beneficial effect, but the framing of that fun must be carefully aligned with both organizational goals and employee characteristics. ‘Managers must learn how to achieve the delicate balance of allowing employees the freedom to enjoy themselves at work while simultaneously high levels of performance’ (Tews et al., 2013).

Deery (2008) has recommended several actions that can be adopted at the organizational level to retain good staff as well as assist in balancing work and family life. Those particularly appropriate to the hospitality industry include allowing adequate breaks during the working day, staff functions that involve families, and providing health and well-being opportunities.




Questions 27-31
Look at the following statements (Questions 27-31) and the list of researchers below.
Match each statement with the correct researcher, A-F.

Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes 27-31 on your answer sheet.

NB  You may use any letter more than once.

27   Hotel managers need to know what would encourage good staff to remain.

28   The actions of managers may make staff feel they shouldn’t move to a different employer.

29   Little is done in the hospitality industry to help workers improve their skills.

30   Staff are less likely to change jobs if cooperation is encouraged.

31   Dissatisfaction with pay is not the only reason why hospitality workers change jobs.

List of Researchers

A   Pfeffer
B   Lucas
C   Maroudas et al.
D   Ng and Sorensen
E   Enz and Siguaw
F   Deery



Questions 32-35
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 3?
In boxes 32-35 on your answer sheet, write

YES                  if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer

NO                   if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer

NOT GIVEN    if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this


32   One reason for high staff turnover in the hospitality industry is poor morale.

33   Research has shown that staff have a tendency to dislike their workplace.

34   An improvement in working conditions and job security makes staff satisfied with their jobs.

35   Staff should be allowed to choose when they take breaks during the working day.



Questions 36-40
Complete the summary below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet.

Fun at work

Tews, Michel, and Stafford carried out research on staff in an American chain of 36………………………. They discovered that activities designed for staff to have fun improved their 37………………………, and that management involvement led to lower staff 38 …………………………... They also found that the activities needed to fit with both the company’s 39 ………………………….. and the 40 …………………………. Of the staff. A balance was required between a degree of freedom and maintaining work standards.

Motivational factors and the hospitality industry Reading Answers 

Cambridge 14 Test 1

27. E

28. D

29. B

30. D

31. C

32. YES

33. NO

34. NO

35. NOT GIVEN

36. restaurants

37. performance

38. turnover

39. goals

40. characteristics


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Some people think that human needs for farmland, housing, and industry are more important than saving land for endangered animals. Do you agree or disagree with this point of view? Why or why not? -Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Some people think that human needs for farmland, housing, and industry are more important than saving land for endangered animals. Do you agree or disagree with this point of view? Why or why not?

-Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

 

Model answer:

People's needs are growing in tandem with the human population, which is increasing year after year. We require more food, machines, and living space. As a result, individuals require more land to meet their needs. We continue to cultivate and irrigate additional areas to sow crops, construct new buildings, airports, and highways, among other things. I believe we forget from time to time that we are not alone on this planet. I'm afraid I have to disagree with individuals who believe that human needs take precedence over preserving habitat for endangered species. My viewpoint is based on the following considerations.

First and foremost, as I already stated, we are not alone in this world. We used to be a part of nature a few centuries ago. We must remember this and treat all species with respect.

Second, I believe that we must all consider the issue of overpopulation. The human population is rapidly expanding, and we must take action to address this. Every family, in my opinion, should have no more than two children. It will assist in slowing population increase and reduce human demands for farming, housing, and industry.

Finally, I believe it is a contemporary issue in today's world. As a result, my point is that everyone should respond to this question and provide a solution.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Some people think that it is essential to have a single language as an official international language. Others believe that it will make it difficult to identify countries and cause a loss of culture. -What are your opinions on this?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Some people think that it is essential to have a single language as an official international language. Others believe that it will make it difficult to identify countries and cause a loss of culture.

-What are your opinions on this?

Answer:

With the rise of globalization, it appears that a common language will be required to enable trade and communication. However, some people are opposed to the creation of a single language because they believe it will lead to cultural deterioration and the loss of local linguistic knowledge. It is, nevertheless, feasible to utilize an official international language while maintaining one's native tongue and culture.

To begin with, many countries already have a national language or languages. India, for example, has two official languages: Hindi and English. Official languages are required in a country like India, where several languages are spoken, to ensure communication between people and other states. In China, for example, where several languages are spoken, Mandarin allows people from different provinces to communicate with one another.

Second, in this age of rampant globalization, an international language is a foregone conclusion. For example, how will an African business person conduct business in China if the languages are different? In this sense, it is not simply a worldwide language that is unavoidable and necessary for 21st-century trade, commerce, and economic expansion.

Opponents of establishing an official international language say that it will result in a loss of cultural identity. The employment of an official international language, on the other hand, does not imply that local languages will become extinct. For example, English is already an unofficial worldwide language, but this does not mean that people use English or ignore their tongue. English is employed in specialized situations (trade, commerce, etc. ), but native languages are used in everyday instruction.

In summary, the need for an official international language is unavoidable as the world becomes smaller. Although its status is unofficial, English has already acquired this role. In a period of rising globalization, I believe that employing either an official or unofficial international language is vital to enhance communication.


Cambridge 11 ielts LISTENING TEST 2 Enquiry about joining Youth Council

               Cambridge 11 ielts LISTENING TEST 2

Enquiry about joining Youth CouncilWith answers

SECTION 1

Questions 1 – 10

Complete the notes below.

Write ONE WORD AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.

Enquiry about joining Youth Council

Example

Name: Roger ………..Brown…………

Age: 18

Currently staying in a 1……………. during the week

Postal address: 2 17, ……………… Street, Stamford, Lincs

Postcode: 3……………..

Occupation: student and part-time job as a 4……………..

Studying 5…………… (major subject) and history (minor subject)

Hobbies: does a lot of 6……………., and is interested in the 7……………..

On Youth Council, wants to work with young people who are 8……………..

Will come to talk to the Elections Officer next Monday at 9…………….. pm

Mobile number: 10……………

SECTION 2

Questions 11 – 20

New staff at theatre

Questions 11 and 12

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

Which TWO changes have been made so far during the refurbishment of the theatre?

A  Some rooms now have a different use.

 A different type of seating has been installed.

C  An elevator has been installed.

D  The outside of the building has been repaired.

E  Extra seats have been added.

Questions 13 and 14

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

Which TWO facilities does the theatre currently offer to the public?

A  rooms for hire

B  backstage tours

C  hire of costumes

D  a bookshop

E  a café

Questions 15 and 16

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

Which TWO workshops does the theatre currently offer?

A  sound

B  acting

C  making puppets

D  make-up

E  lighting

Questions 17-20

Label the plan below.

Write the correct letter, A-G, next to Questions 17-20.

Ground floor plan of theatre

17  box office                                …………….

18  theatre manager’s office  …………….

19  lighting box                             …………….

20  artistic director’s offices  …………….

SECTION 3

Questions 21 – 26

Choose the correct letter, AB or C.

Rocky Bay field trip

21  What do the students agree should be included in their aims?

A  factors affecting where organisms live

B  the need to preserve endangered species

C  techniques for classifying different organisms

22  What equipment did they forget to take on the Field Trip?

A  string

B  a compass

C  a ruler

23  In Helen’s procedure section, Colin suggests a change in

A  the order in which information is given.

B  the way the information is divided up.

C  the amount of information provided.

24  What do they say about the method they used to measure wave speed?

A  It provided accurate results.

B  It was simple to carry out.

C  It required special equipment.

25  What mistake did Helen make when first drawing the map?

A  She chose the wrong scale.

B  She stood in the wrong place.

C  She did it at the wrong time.

26  What do they decide to do next with their map?

A  scan it onto a computer

B  check it using photographs

C  add information from the internet

Questions 27 and 28

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

Which TWO problems affecting organisms in the splash zone are mentioned?

A  lack of water

B  strong winds

C  lack of food

D  high temperatures

E  large waves

Questions 29 and 30

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

Which TWO reasons for possible error will they include in their report?

A  inaccurate records of the habitat of organisms

B  influence on behaviour of organisms by observer

C incorrect identification of some organisms

D  making generalisations from a small sample

E  missing some organisms when counting

SECTION 4

Questions 31 – 40

Complete the notes below.

Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer.

DESIGNING A PUBLIC BUILDING:

THE TAYLOR CONCERT HALL

Introduction

The designer of a public building may need to consider the building’s

●   function

●   physical and 31…………….. context

●   symbolic meaning

Location and concept of the Concert Hall

On the site of a disused 32………………

Beside a 33………………

The design is based on the concept of a mystery

Building design

It’s approached by a 34……………… for pedestrians

The building is the shape of a 35……………….

One exterior wall acts as a large 36………………

In the auditorium:

●   the floor is built on huge pads made of 37………………

●   the walls are made of local wood and are 38……………… in shape

●   ceiling panels and 39………………. on walls allow adjustment of acoustics

Evaluation

Some critics say the 40…………….. style of the building is inappropriate

ANSWERS

Part 1

1  hostel

2  Buckleigh

3  PE9 7QT

4  waiter

5  politics

6  cycling

7  cinema

8  disabled

9  4.30 (pm) / half past four

10  07788 136711

Part 2

11&12  A, B

13&14  B, D

15&16  C, E

17  G

18  D

19  B

20  F

Part 3

21  A

22  A

23  C

24  B

25  B

26  B

27&28  A, D

29&30  C, E

Part 4

31  social

32  factory

33  canal

34  bridge

35  box

36  screen

37  rubber

38  curved

39  curtains

40  international


Cambridge 11 ielts LISTENING TEST 1 HIRING A PUBLIC ROOM

Cambridge 11 ielts LISTENING TEST 1

HIRING A PUBLIC ROOM

With answers

Section 1: Questions 1-10
Complete the notes below. Write ONE WORD AND/OR A NUMBER.

HIRING A PUBLIC ROOM

Example
• The main hall seats 200

Room and cost
• The (1)  room seats 100
• Cost of main hall for Saturday evening: (2) £  + £250 deposit (3)  payment is required)
• Cost includes use of tables and chairs and also (4) 
• Additional charge for use of the kitchen: £25

Before the event
• Will need a (5)  licence
• Need to contact caretaker (Mr Evans) in advance to arrange (6) 

During the event
• The building is no smoking
• The band should use the (7)  door at the back
• Don’t touch the system that controls the volume
• For microphones, contact the caretaker

After the event
• Need to know the (8)  for the cleaning cupboard
• The (9)  must be washed and rubbish placed in black bags
• All (10)  must be taken down
• Chairs and tables must be piled up

Section 2: Questions 11-14
Complete the notes below. Write ONE WORD for each answer.

Fiddy Working Heritage Farm

Advice about visiting the farm

Visitors should
• Take care not to harm any (11) 
• Not touch any (12) 
• Wear (13) 
• Not bring (14)  into the farm, with certain exceptions

Questions 15-20
Label the map below. Write the correct letter A-I, next to questions 15-20.

15. Scarecrow 
16. Maze 
17. Café 
18. Black Barn 
19. Covered picnic area 
20. Fiddy house 

Section 3: Questions 21-30
Choose the correct letter A, B or C.

Study on Gender in Physics

21. The students in Akira Miyake’s study were all majoring in

 A physics
 B psychology or physics
 C science, technology, engineering or mathematics

22. The aim of Miyake’s study was to investigate

 A what kind of women choose to study physics
 B a way of improving women’s performance in physics
 C whether fewer women than men study physics at college

23. The female physics students were wrong to believe that

 A the teachers marked them in an unfair way
 B the male students expected them to do badly
 C their test results were lower than the male students’

24. Miyake’s team asked the students to write about

 A what they enjoyed about studying physics
 B the successful experiences of other people
 C something that was important to them personally

25. What was the aim of the writing exercise done by the subjects?

 A to reduce stress
 B to strengthen verbal ability
 C to encourage logical thinking

26. What surprised the researchers about the study?

 A how few students managed to get A grades
 B the positive impact it had on physics results for women
 C the difference between male and female performance

27. Greg and Lisa think Miyake’s results could have been affected by

 A the length of the writing task
 B the number of students who took part
 C the information the students were given

28. Greg and Lisa decide that in their own project, they will compare the effects of

 A two different writing tasks
 B a writing task with an oral task
 C two different oral tasks

29. The main finding of Smolinsky’s research was that class teamwork activities

 A were most effective when done by all-women groups
 B had no effect on the performance of men or women
 C improved the results of men more than of women

30. What will Lisa and Greg do next?

 A talk to a professor
 B observe a science class
 C look at the science timetable 

Section 4: Questions 31-40
Complete the notes below. Write ONE WORD ONLY.

Ocean Biodiversity

Biodiversity hotspots
• areas containing many different species
• important for locating targets for (31) 
• at first only identified on land

Boris Worm, 2005
• identified hotspots for large ocean predators, e.g. sharks
• found that ocean hotspots:
– were not always rich in (32) 
– had higher temperatures at the (33) 
– had sufficient (34)  in the water

Lisa Ballance, 2007
• looked for hotspots for marine (35) 
• found these were all located where ocean currents meet

Census of Marine Life
• found new ocean species living:
– under the (36) 
– near volcanoes on the ocean floor

Global Marine Species Assessment
• want to list endangered ocean species, considering:
– population size
– geographical distribution
– rate of (37) 
• Aim: to assess 20,000 species and make a distribution (38)  for each one

Recommendations to retain ocean biodiversity
• increase the number of ocean reserves
• establish (39)  corridors (e.g. for turtles)
• reduce fishing quotas
• catch fish only for the purpose of (40) 

ANSWERS

1. Charlton
2. £115
3. cash
4. parking
5. music
6. entry
7. stage
8. code
9. floors
10. decorations
11. animals
12. tools
13. shoes
14. dogs
15. F
16. G
17. D
18. H
19. C
20. A

21. C
22. B
23. B
24. C
25. A
26. B
27. C
28. A
29. B
30. A
31. conservation
32. foods
33. surface
34. oxygen
35. mammals
36. ice
37. decline
38. map
39. migration
40. consumption


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Newspapers and the Media Q-Some people think that newspapers are the best way to learn the news. However, others believe that they can know news better through other media. Discuss both views and give your opinion

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Newspapers and the Media 

Q-Some people think that newspapers are the best way to learn the news. However, others believe that they can know news better through other media. Discuss both views and give your opinion

ANSWER 

Newspapers have been considered the most reliable news source for more than a century, but newer forms of media have supplanted their influence in recent decades. Some feel that these new news sources are better, but in my opinion, newspapers are better because of the amount of time and research that writers put into their articles.

Many people prefer newer media outlets because they deliver news faster across various convenient platforms. The most notable example of this is online news. The vast majority of people get their information from Facebook and other social media websites, which aggregate articles from various online publishers, including the online version of print newspapers in some cases. The problem here is that websites are solely concerned with increasing traffic and getting news up as fast as possible. As a result, it is common for a website to quickly publish news to beat others to the scoop before appropriately verifying or even thoughtfully analyzing. The result is hordes of people clicking on links to amuse themselves for a minute without casting a critical eye over the integrity of the news. These articles are then shared online or by word of mouth, and false information spreads rapidly.

Despite the conveniences of online media, the news printed in newspapers has been better researched and verified in most cases. Newspapers frequently devote entire departments to long-term investigative journalism. A standout example of this would be the Boston Globe's years-long investigation into sexual abuse by the Catholic church. They carefully interviewed victims and put together a convincing case that led to some individuals' long-lasting reforms and convictions. They also published stories on the topic for over a year, which allowed for detailed and thoughtful analysis of the problem, suggestions for solutions, and articles on broader societal implications. This type of reporting is anathema to the vibrant pace of online media.

In conclusion, even though newspapers are a dying industry, I think they are more informative and trustworthy than the predominantly online institutions replacing them. But unfortunately, this trend is irreversible and will have consequences for the future of democraciesworldwide as people becomeless informed.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Old People & Exercise Q-Even though doctors advise older adults to get more exercise, many older adults do not get enough. What are the reasons for this? What are some possible solutions for this?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Old People & Exercise 

Q-Even though doctors advise older adults to get more exercise, many older adults do not get enough.

What are the reasons for this?

What are some possible solutions for this?

Many older adults today, despite recommendations from doctors, do not get adequate exercise. I believe this is primarily related to their upbringing and simple psychology, while the best solutions augment existing remedies.

Essential sources of this problem are historical and psychological. Today, many older adults grew up in a period when exercise was not ubiquitous. Gyms in schools and private businesses are a more recent development, so they have not become ingrained habits for past generations. Moreover, men may have experience playing a sport, but female athletics were historically underfunded and banned in many nations, affecting older women. This history intermingles with normal human psychology. People are naturally embarrassed to stand out or appear foolish in public. Feeling self-conscious is an initial barrier that prevents many elderly from taking up a new sport or going to the gym for the first time.

Better accommodating the elderly is one of the most productive solutions. Building more parks for exercise is one way to accomplish this. For decades, some East Asian countries, such as Vietnam and South Korea, have created small, primarily rural, and urban parks equipped with necessary exercise equipment. They are simple to use and well-known, and the elderly have grown accustomed to them. More older adults would exercise if these successful policies were expanded and replicated. Another related solution would be to construct more fitness centers. Because gymgoers are typically younger, this may not have a significant impact. Still, as a new generation of older adults enters the workforce, these centers will become increasingly important, allowing governments to take a proactive rather than reactive approach.

Finally, there are historical and fundamentally human reasons why older adults do not exercise today. The solutions are not novel, but they would improve the health of the elderly.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Advertising aimed at children should be banned. -To what extent do you agree or disagree

IELTS WRITING TASK 2 

Q-Advertising aimed at children should be banned. 

-To what extent do you agree or disagree

Currently, advertisements have a significant impact on our daily lives. Therefore, I wholeheartedly agree with the statement that commercial advertisements aimed at children should be prohibited because they may harm the next generation's perception and value. One of the most obvious reasons is that children cannot think for themselves. In most cases, juniors absorb whatever knowledge they can get their hands on without making an informed decision. As a result, some deceptive campaigns may harm children's world perceptions. Some advertisements, for example, claim that their products can provide consumers with the ability to fight criminals.

When confronted with a criminal, a young consumer who uses that product may attempt to stop the offender on their own rather than reporting the crime to the police, which is extremely dangerous to their lives. Another reason is that these advertisements may encourage juniors to pay attention to commodity brand names. Many students may adopt this fashionable trend due to widespread advertising for a specific product. 

However, because of economic disparities between families, not every household can afford to buy advertised items for their children. Because of the relatively high cost, this is especially true for people from low-income families. For example, children who can afford expensive toys may not want to share them with those who cannot. As a result, discrimination among these juniors is possible. To summarise, I am convinced that this campaign, which primarily targets young people, should be strictly limited due to the adverse effects it has had on the next generation.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Planning for the FutureFuture Q-Some feels that it is a waste of time to plan for the future and it is more important to focus on the present. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Planning for the FutureFuture 

Q-Some feels that it is a waste of time to plan for the future and it is more important to focus on the present.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Today, there is a growing belief that making plans for the future can take one's attention away from the present moment. As a result, while general future goals are essential, individuals should prioritize them right now.

The obvious benefit of having goals is that they direct and align your actions. An excellent counter-example to this comes from aimless individuals with no specific plans. It is not uncommon for recent university graduates to be dissatisfied with their jobs and jump from one to another. This can be a rewarding experience, but one will likely be stuck in low-paying jobs and fall behind peers if it lasts too long. On the other hand, a clear goal can motivate a decision on a long-term vocation and force one to put in the hard work required to excel.

Regardless of the general benefits of having some long-term goals, obsessing over the FutureFuture can impair connection with the present. Many famous literary examples, such as Sinclair Lewis's renowned novel Babbitt, reveal underlying tensions between capitalist striving and individual contentment. Babbitt, the titular character, has spent most of his life looking to the FutureFuture and achieving middle-class goals. As a result, he becomes dissatisfied with his life because he no longer has a solid connection to the present moment and his genuine emotions. The suspension of his deepest desires to meet extrinsic societal goals alienates him from the present. This is known as a mid-life crisis, and it is widespread among driven individuals who have reached the pinnacle of success.

Finally, a focus on future goals is one source of current unhappiness. As a result, individuals must carefully choose their goals to distinguish between their lives and the lives they are expected to want.


Cambridge 10 ielts reading TEST 2 passage 1 Tea and the Industrial Revolution READING with answers READING PASSAGE 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13 which are based on Reading Passage 1 below. Tea and the Industrial Revolution

Cambridge 10 ielts reading TEST 2 passage 1

Tea and the Industrial Revolution

READING with answers

READING PASSAGE 1

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13 which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.

Tea and the Industrial Revolution

A Cambridge professor says that a change in drinking habits was the reason for the Industrial Revolution in Britain. Anjana Abuja reports

A

Alan Macfarlane, professor of anthropological science at King’s College, Cambridge has, like other historians, spent decades wrestling with the enigma of the Industrial Revolution. Why did this particular Big Bang – the world-changing birth of industry-happen in Britain? And why did it strike at the end of the 18th century?

B

Macfarlane compares the puzzle to a combination lock. ‘There are about 20 different factors and all of them need to be present before the revolution can happen,’ he says. For industry to take off, there needs to be the technology and power to drive factories, large urban populations to provide cheap labour, easy transport to move goods around, an affluent middle-class willing to buy mass-produced objects, a market-driven economy and a political system that allows this to happen. While this was the case for England, other nations, such as Japan, the Netherlands and France also met some of these criteria but were not industrialising. All these factors must have been necessary. But not sufficient to cause the revolution, says Macfarlane. ‘After all, Holland had everything except coal while China also had many of these factors. Most historians are convinced there are one or two missing factors that you need to open the lock.’

C

The missing factors, he proposes, are to be found in almost even kitchen cupboard. Tea and beer, two of the nation’s favourite drinks, fuelled the revolution. The antiseptic properties of tannin, the active ingredient in tea, and of hops in beer – plus the fact that both are made with boiled water – allowed urban communities to flourish at close quarters without succumbing to water-borne diseases such as dysentery. The theory sounds eccentric but once he starts to explain the detective work that went into his deduction, the scepticism gives way to wary admiration. Macfarlanes case has been strengthened by support from notable quarters – Roy Porter, the distinguished medical historian, recently wrote a favourable appraisal of his research.

D

Macfarlane had wondered for a long time how the Industrial Revolution came about. Historians had alighted on one interesting factor around the mid-18th century that required explanation. Between about 1650 and 1740, the population in Britain was static. But then there was a burst in population growth. Macfarlane says: ‘The infant mortality rate halved in the space of 20 years, and this happened in both rural areas and cities, and across all classes. People suggested four possible causes. Was there a sudden change in the viruses and bacteria around? Unlikely. Was there a revolution in medical science? But this was a century before Lister’s revolution*. Was there a change in environmental conditions? There were improvements in agriculture that wiped out malaria, but these were small gains. Sanitation did not become widespread until the 19th century. The only option left is food. But the height and weight statistics show a decline. So the food must have got worse. Efforts to explain this sudden reduction in child deaths appeared to draw a blank.’

E

This population burst seemed to happen at just the right time to provide labour for the Industrial Revolution. ‘When you start moving towards an industrial revolution, it is economically efficient to have people living close together,’ says Macfarlane. ‘But then you get disease, particularly from human waste.’ Some digging around in historical records revealed that there was a change in the incidence of water-borne disease at that time, especially dysentery. Macfarlane deduced that whatever the British were drinking must have been important in regulating disease. He says, ‘We drank beer. For a long time, the English were protected by the strong antibacterial agent in hops, which were added to help preserve the beer. But in the late 17th century a tax was introduced on malt, the basic ingredient of beer. The poor turned to water and gin and in the 1720s the mortality rate began to rise again. Then it suddenly dropped again. What caused this?’

F

Macfarlane looked to Japan, which was also developing large cities about the same time, and also had no sanitation. Water-borne diseases had a much looser grip on the Japanese population than those in Britain. Could it be the prevalence of tea in their culture? Macfarlane then noted that the history of tea in Britain provided an extraordinary coincidence of dates. Tea was relatively expensive until Britain started a direct clipper trade with China in the early 18th century. By the 1740s, about the time that infant mortality was dipping, the drink was common. Macfarlane guessed that the fact that water had to be boiled, together with the stomach-purifying properties of tea meant that the breast milk provided by mothers was healthier than it had ever been. No other European nation sipped tea like the British, which, by Macfarlanes logic, pushed these other countries out of contention for the revolution.

G

But, if tea is a factor in the combination lock, why didn’t Japan forge ahead in a tea-soaked industrial revolution of its own? Macfarlane notes that even though 17th-century Japan had large cities, high literacy rates, even a futures market, it had turned its back on the essence of any work-based revolution by giving up labour-saving devices such as animals, afraid that they would put people out of work. So, the nation that we now think of as one of the most technologically advanced entered the 19th century having ‘abandoned the wheel’.

——–

* Joseph Lister was the first doctor to use antiseptic techniques during surgical operations to prevent infections.

Questions 1-7

Reading Passage 1 has seven paragraphs, A-G.

Choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below.

Write the correct number, i-ix, in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet

List of Headings

 The search for the reasons for an increase in population

ii  Industrialisation and the fear of unemployment

iii  The development of cities in Japan 4 The time and place of the Industrial Revolution

iv  The time and place of the Industrial Revolution

v  The cases of Holland, France and China

vi  Changes in drinking habits in Britain

vii  Two keys to Britain’s industrial revolution

viii  Conditions required for industrialisation

ix  Comparisons with Japan lead to the answer

1  Paragraph A

2  Paragraph B

3  Paragraph C

4  Paragraph D

5  Paragraph E

 Paragraph F

 Paragraph G

Questions 8-13

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?

In boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE  if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE  if the statement contradicts the information

NOTGIVEN    if there is no information on this

8   China’s transport system was not suitable for industry in the 18th century.

9  Tea and beer both helped to prevent dysentery in Britain.

10  Roy Porter disagrees with Professor Macfarlane’s findings.

11   After 1740,there was a reduction in population in Britain.

12  People in Britain used to make beer at home.

13  The tax on malt indirectly caused a rise in the death rate.

  Cambridge 10 Test 2 passage 1 Reading Answers

Passage 1

1. iv

2. viii

3. vii

4. i

5. vi

6. ix

7. ii

8. NOT GIVEN

9. TRUE

10. FALSE

11. FALSE

12. NOT GIVEN

13. TRUE


Cambridge 10 ielts reading TEST 1 passage 3 The psychology of innovation READING with answers READING PASSAGE 3 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below. The psychology of innovation

Cambridge 10 ielts reading TEST 1 passage 3

The psychology of innovation

READING with answers

READING PASSAGE 3

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.

The psychology of innovation

Why are so few companies truly innovative?

Innovation is key to business survival, and companies put substantial resources into inspiring employees to develop new ideas. There are, nevertheless, people working in luxurious, state-of-the-art centres designed to stimulate innovation who find that their environment doesn’t make them feel at all creative. And there are those who don’t have a budget, or much space, but who innovate successfully.

For Robert B. Cialdini, Professor of Psychology at Arizona State University, one reason that companies don’t succeed as often as they should is that innovation starts with recruitment. Research shows that the fit between an employee’s values and a company’s values makes a difference to what contribution they make and whether, two years after they join, they’re still at the company. Studies at Harvard Business School show that, although some individuals may be more creative than others, almost every individual can be creative in the right circumstances.

One of the most famous photographs in the story of rock’n’roll emphasises Ciaidini’s views. The 1956 picture of singers Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, Johnny Cash and Jerry Lee Lewis jamming at a piano in Sun Studios in Memphis tells a hidden story. Sun’s ‘million-dollar quartet’ could have been a quintet. Missing from the picture is Roy Orbison’ a greater natural singer than Lewis, Perkins or Cash. Sam Phillips, who owned Sun, wanted to revolutionise popular music with songs that fused black and white music, and country and blues. Presley, Cash, Perkins and Lewis instinctively understood Phillips’s ambition and believed in it. Orbison wasn’t inspired by the goal, and only ever achieved one hit with the Sun label.

The value fit matters, says Cialdini, because innovation is, in part, a process of change, and under that pressure we, as a species, behave differently, ‘When things change, we are hard-wired to play it safe.’ Managers should therefore adopt an approach that appears counterintuitive -they should explain what stands to be lost if the company fails to seize a particular opportunity. Studies show that we invariably take more gambles when threatened with a loss than when offered a reward.

Managing innovation is a delicate art. It’s easy for a company to be pulled in conflicting directions as the marketing, product development, and finance departments each get different feedback from different sets of people. And without a system which ensures collaborative exchanges within the company, it’s also easy for small ‘pockets of innovation’ to disappear. Innovation is a contact sport. You can’t brief people just by saying, ‘We’re going in this direction and I’m going to take you with me.’

Cialdini believes that this ‘follow-the-leader syndrome, is dangerous, not least because it encourages bosses to go it alone. ‘It’s been scientifically proven that three people will be better than one at solving problems, even if that one person is the smartest person in the field.’ To prove his point, Cialdini cites an interview with molecular biologist James Watson. Watson, together with Francis Crick, discovered the structure of DNA, the genetic information carrier of all living organisms. ‘When asked how they had cracked the code ahead of an array of highly accomplished rival investigators, he said something that stunned me. He said he and Crick had succeeded because they were aware that they weren’t the most intelligent of the scientists pursuing the answer. The smartest scientist was called Rosalind Franklin who, Watson said, “was so intelligent she rarely sought advice”.’

Teamwork taps into one of the basic drivers of human behaviour. ‘The principle of social proof is so pervasive that we don’t even recognise it,’ says Cialdini. ‘If your project is being resisted, for example, by a group of veteran employees, ask another old-timer to speak up for it.’ Cialdini is not alone in advocating this strategy. Research shows that peer power, used horizontally not vertically, is much more powerful than any boss’s speech.

Writing, visualising and prototyping can stimulate the flow of new ideas. Cialdini cites scores of research papers and historical events that prove that even something as simple as writing deepens every individual’s engagement in the project. It is, he says, the reason why all those competitions on breakfast cereal packets encouraged us to write in saying, in no more than 10 words: ‘I like Kellogg’s Com Flakes because… .’ The very act of writing makes us more likely to believe it.

Authority doesn’t have to inhibit innovation but it often does. The wrong kind of leadership will lead to what Cialdini calls ‘captainitis, the regrettable tendency of team members to opt out of team responsibilities that are properly theirs’. He calls it captainitis because, he says, ‘crew members of multipilot aircraft exhibit a sometimes deadly passivity when the flight captain makes a clearly wrong-headed decision’. This behaviour is not, he says, unique to air travel, but can happen in any workplace where the leader is overbearing.

At the other end of the scale is the 1980s Memphis design collective, a group of young designers for whom ‘the only rule was that there were no rule’. This environment encouraged a free interchange of ideas, which led to more creativity with form, function, colour and materials that revolutionised attitudes to furniture design.

Many theorists believe the ideal boss should lead from behind, taking pride in collective accomplishment and giving credit where it is due. Cialdini says: ‘Leaders should encourage everyone to contribute and simultaneously assure all concerned that every recommendation is important to making the right decision and will be given full attention.’ The frustrating thing about innovation is that there are many approaches, but no magic formula. However, a manager who wants to create a truly innovative culture can make their job a lot easier by recognising these psychological realities.

Questions 27-30

Choose the correct letter, ABC or D.

Write the correct letter in boxes 27-30 on your answer sheet.

27   The example of the ‘million-dollar quartet’ underlines the writer’s point about

A   recognising talent.

B   working as a team.

C having a shared objective.

D being an effective leader.

28   James Watson suggests that he and Francis Crick won the race to discover the DNA code because they

A   were conscious of their own limitations.

B   brought complementary skills to their partnership.

C   were determined to outperform their brighter rivals.

D   encouraged each other to realise their joint ambition.

29   The writer mentions competitions on breakfast cereal packets as an example of how to

A   inspire creative thinking.

B   generate concise writing.

C   promote loyalty to a group.

D   strengthen commitment to an idea.

30   In the last paragraph, the writer suggests that it is important for employees to

A   be aware of their company’s goals.

B   feel that their contributions are valued.

C   have respect for their co-workers‟ achievements.

D   understand why certain management decisions are made.

Questions 31-35

Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-G, below.

Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes 31-35 on your answer sheet

31   Employees whose values match those of their employers are more likely to

32   At times of change, people tend to

33   If people are aware of what they might lose, they will often

34   People working under a dominant boss are liable to

35   Employees working in organisations with few rules are more likely to

A   take chances.

B   share their ideas.

C   become competitive.

D   get promotion.

E   avoid risk.

F   ignore their duties.

G   remain in their jobs.

Questions 36-40

Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 3?

In boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet, write

YES  if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer

NO  if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer

NOTGIVEN    if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this.

36  The physical surroundings in which a person works play a key role in determining their creativity.

37  Most people have the potential to be creative.

38  Teams work best when their members are of equally matched intelligence.

39  It is easier for smaller companies to be innovative.

40  A manager’s approval of an idea is more persuasive than that of a colleague.

  Cambridge 10 Test 1 passage 3 Reading Answers

Passage 3

27. C

28. A

29. D

30. B

31. G

32. E

33. A

34. F

35. B

36. NO

37. YES

38. NOT GIVEN

39. NOT GIVEN

40. NO


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Some people enjoy change, and they look forward to new experiences. Others like their lives to stay the same, and they do not change their habits. Compare these two approaches to life. Which method do you prefer? - Explain why.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Some people enjoy change, and they look forward to new experiences.

Others like their lives to stay the same, and they do not change their habits.

Compare these two approaches to life. Which method do you prefer?

- Explain why.

Answer:

Some people want to live in the same residence their entire life, with the same profession and routines. Others, on the other hand, yearn for fresh experiences and changes. For various reasons, which I shall describe below, I prefer the first approach to life.

To begin with, making adjustments in one's life has numerous advantages. One learns new skills and experiences through trying new things. It is significant, in my opinion, because life becomes repetitive without changes. As a result, I strive to make adjustments in my life regularly. Furthermore, when I am bored with my life, I do not think positively of it. I feel as if those days were a waste of time. I didn't do anything interesting, I didn't learn anything interesting, and I squandered my time.

Second, humans require change. We also need barriers to overcome to achieve our objectives. Evolution, I feel, makes us stronger, more persistent, more self-assured, and more patient. Also, I believe that all successful people enjoy change and new experiences because it is challenging to be the best in any subject without polishing existing knowledge and gaining unique experience. As a result, people seize every opportunity to learn more and improve their lives.

People who like their lives to remain the same, on the other hand, are pretty stable. They've had the same work their entire lives, the same habits, the same weekends, and even the same years. It is, in my opinion, tedious. What will they say about their lives to their children? What type of impact will they have on the world? Such folks, I feel, are terrified of change.

Curiosity and the need for new experiences, in my opinion, are two of the most critical factors in human evolution. In addition, people have always desired to push boundaries and expand their knowledge and expertise. As a result, people who thrive on change are the driving force behind human progress.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Some thinks that people are naturally born good leaders, while others feel that leadership skills can be learned. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Some thinks that people are naturally born good leaders, while others feel that leadership skills can be learned. Discuss both views and give your own opinion. 

 Answer

It is often said that essential people are born with specific characteristics to become great leaders. The alternative view is that leadership is a learnable quality. I agree with the latter viewpoint because training and experience are more important than innate ability in this situation.

It is somewhat true that many people are born with distinct personality traits that enable them to become talented leaders. For example, leaders are typically charming and persuasive. Those who lack these characteristics, on the other hand, may struggle to inspire the belief and loyalty that all leaders require and may end up as followers rather than leaders. For example, a salesperson who frequently fails to persuade his clients to sign a deal may be discouraged from becoming the sales team leader because he does not believe he has what it takes. More convincing salespeople are more likely to advance to that position.

Some argue, however, that leadership skills can be developed through proper training and effort. As a result, many institutes provide leadership training programs to assist those who want to learn the necessary leadership skills. One of the many skills that these schools can teach is public speaking. Individuals who are shy and lack confidence can gain a foothold in the leadership arena by learning the fundamentals of good body language, pronunciation, and other aspects of effective public speaking. As a result, they will become better leaders.

To summarise, while some leadership traits are likely inherited, there is enormous room for people to grow into positions of responsibility if they devote their full attention to learning great leaders' skills and personal characteristics.



IELTS Writing task 2 Q-Modern communications mean that it’s no longer necessary to write letters. Do you agree or disagree with this statement?

IELTS Writing task 2

Q-Modern communications mean that it’s no longer necessary to write letters.

Do you agree or disagree with this statement?

Answer 

Before the telegraph or the telephone invention, most people used letter writing as their primary mode of communication. Since then, we've created speedier and more direct communication methods, and personal mail has become a thing of the past.

We choose to call, email, or even text our parents in many instances when they would have sent a letter. These are excellent methods to invite guests over or to update a family member on recent events. For example, they have the benefit of rapid communication, which allows us to respond fast. Fax and email are also convenient in the workplace.

However, in my opinion, there are occasions when a letter is the only option. Letters are more formal and meticulously written than emails. This makes them more appropriate for instances where the receiver is likely to save and re-read the letter, maybe multiple times, such as formal letters of appreciation or condolence. In addition, unlike phone conversations, notes give a written record. As a result, they're a superior approach to lay forth a crucial or sophisticated point, such as in official complaints or judicial proceedings.

Finally, I agree that we don't need to send letters as frequently as we did in the past. But, on the other hand, I believe there are still certain critical instances that must be addressed.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Some believes it is beneficial to show foreign films, while others feel this can harm local culture. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Some believes it is beneficial to show foreign films, while others feel this can harm local culture.

Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

Some believe that cinemas should show a diverse range of films worldwide, while others are concerned about the globalizing effect on local culture. Though reliance on domestic film can contribute significantly to cultural development, it is an overly restrictive constraint.

Those concerned about the adverse effects of foreign-produced films emphasize the importance of locally produced films. When a country imports a few movies from abroad, it is compelled to make more and better films to attract audiences. For example, few foreign films were shown following China's cultural revolution in the 1980s. Instead, studios supported ambitious Chinese filmmakers such as Zhang Yimou, who later led the early 1990s ascent of Chinese new wave cinema. This pattern was repeated throughout the twentieth century in South Korea, Japan, France, and several other countries. As a result, each nation's total cultural impact has been massive and, in many cases, represents their most recent defining artistic achievements.

Nonetheless, watching foreign films allows individuals to enjoy the best entertainment. It would be cruel to ban foreign films and enforce a sub-par viewing experience in countries with under-developed film industries. The film is, after all, mainly an enjoyable form of relaxation. The most popular movies come from Hollywood and include blockbuster superhero franchises, Oscar-worthy dramas, and comedies. Many local theatre chains would struggle to stay in business without foreign films. Moreover, the new online streaming options mean that audiences would likely subscribe to Netflix or illegally download movies. Therefore, the cultural benefits of such restrictions might be questionable, while theatre-goers would indeed be deprived of quality recreation.

Finally, the examples of isolated national film industries do not outweigh a film's diversionary value. Other than censoring outside influences, there are different ways to preserve and promote culture.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Some people believe that children that commit crimes should be punished. Others think the parents should be punished instead. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Some people believe that children that commit crimes should be punished. Others think the parents should be punished instead.

Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

Today, some people call for parents to be held accountable for their children's crimes. There are exceptions, of course, but many cases warrant harsher punishment for parents.

Those who oppose the reform point out that parents are not always to blame. There are many examples of loving parents who raise their children well, but social problems emerge at a young age. This is frequently the case if the child has a mental illness such as schizophrenia or a dissociative disorder. These conditions could be caused by simple genetics, which parents should not be punished, or by trauma that primary caregivers are unaware of. For example, if they have been abused at school or by a relative, the offending follows logically rather than the victim.

Despite the critical exceptions mentioned above, parental abuse and neglect should be punishable. According to studies, most young children who commit crimes have been abused by their parents. Serial killers are an extreme but helpful example. Almost every serial killer begins antisocial behavior at a young age, including criminal animal torture. There are no known examples of serial killers coming from happy homes; they result from varying degrees of parental abuse. This is compelling evidence that parents play a critical role in shaping their children's psyches. As children grow up and have more influences, this may change, but parents are chiefly responsible for young children, and courts should recognize this fact.

In conclusion, there are some cases where parents may not be at fault for criminal acts by children, but in most situations, they are the driving force. Trying parents for their child's crime and seeking treatment for the children would therefore be a modern, progressive, and positive reform.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Some people say that school children should be mainly taught about their own country'scountry's literature (e.g., fiction and poetry) because it is more critical than in other countries. -To what extent do you agree?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Some people say that school children should be mainly taught about their own country'scountry's literature (e.g., fiction and poetry) because it is more critical than in other countries.

-To what extent do you agree?

ANSWER-Many think it is more important to learn about the literature from one'sone's own country than from other countries. I completely agree with this viewpoint because of how literature can contribute to national understanding and individual identity.

The most fundamental reason children should be exposed to literature from their own country is to deepen their understanding. For example, young students in America study a standard curriculum, including authors like Dr. Seuss, Shel Silverstein, and Harper Lee. The books from Dr. Seuss and Shel Silverstein convey principles of individualism, creativity, and entrepreneurship that are key to understanding America'sAmerica's history and present. To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee is an excellent example of a book focused on a period of racial segregation that can help students better understand recent events around the Black Lives Matter movement. Learning about racism from a classic novel set in America is more likely to engage, inform, and stimulate a relevant response likely.

Another reason students need to learn their national literature well is because it will help shape their identity at an impressionable age. Children will form their identity from various sources, including the literature of other countries. This is a positive development. But the primary influence should be from their own country so that they are a true representative of their nationality. For example, a Japanese child growing up abroad could return to Japan and feel like an outsider. One method of countering this is to make sure they grasp poetry and fiction from Japan. Japan'sJapan's singular minimalist tradition will influence classical poetry. From the novels, they will learn about the relationships between people and the differing levels of formality expected in Japanese society. This will all contribute to making their identity more Japanese.

In conclusion, children will better understand and have their identity firmly shaped by the literature of their home country. This is becoming increasingly important in a globalized world that threatens to blur the distinctions between nationalities into a single monoculture.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Some thinks the current generation should take steps to protect the environment for the next generation. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Some thinks the current generation should take steps to protect the environment for the next generation.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Many environmentalists believe that it is the responsibility of current generations to ensure that the Earth is left in good condition for future generations. Although this duty is unjust, it is a burden that must be accepted.

Those who disagree with this sentiment can justifiably point the finger elsewhere. The significant industrial powers of the twentieth century were the primary contributors to climate change and the current cataclysmic warnings.

Automobiles and air travel became commonplace in the last century, and they are two significant drivers of the fossil fuel consumption that many scientists attribute to global warming. Population growth and medical advances have also contributed significantly to the overproduction and mass consumption that characterize the twenty-first century. It is objectively unfair that people today, particularly the younger generation just entering the labor force, should suffer due to the rashness of industrialization.

Regardless, the current generation's responsibility is to heed these potentially dire warnings. People in the past were either intentionally or unintentionally unaware of the consequences of their actions, but such excuses are no longer acceptable. For example, the rapidly deteriorating polar ice caps directly impact animals' natural habitats worldwide. Some climate scientists believe that an increase in natural disasters is also linked to this and other artificial changes to the ecosystem. Past generations who set the world on this path cannot return to correct their mistakes, and future generations will resent the current one if drastic reforms are not implemented.

To summarise, while people today bear little responsibility for climate change, they must commit to mitigating its effects. Leaving this problem for future generations puts them in an unwinnable situation.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Some people say that supermarkets and manufacturers are responsible for reducing the amount of packaging on products they sell. However, others believe that it is the consumer's responsibility to avoid buying products with a lot of packaging. -Discuss both views and give your opinions.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Some people say that supermarkets and manufacturers are responsible for reducing the amount of packaging on products they sell. However, others believe that it is the consumer's responsibility to avoid buying products with a lot of packaging.

-Discuss both views and give your opinions.

It is frequently argued that reducing the over-packaging of products is the responsibility of supermarkets and manufacturers rather than consumers. From my perspective, I mostly agree with the latter.

On the one hand, supermarkets and manufacturers must use less packaging because they are the ones who have implemented unnecessary packaging on a large scale. There is no discernible reason why toothpaste manufacturers have historically chosen to pack tubes in extra boxes or supermarkets have decided to wrap bananas and apples in Styrofoam trays covered in plastic. These redundant practices contribute significantly to the initial production of plastic and its subsequent disposal in landfills. Since supermarkets and manufacturers have the power to reform their policies, it is only logical that they should be responsible.

On the other hand, consumers are the only ones who can force large corporations' hands by boycotting their products. This is most visible in cities where it was previously acceptable to package fruits and vegetables in plastic, like Chiang Mai, Thailand. Local consumer awareness movements have had a discernible impact on businesses. For example, bananas are increasingly being found bare or wrapped in natural leaves, and vegetables are tied together with a single piece of string to reduce their environmental impact. This practice, used in cities worldwide, will have the most significant impact on the environment.

In conclusion, the only pragmatic way to persuade shareholder-controlled corporations to reform packaging policies is by putting consumer pressure on their bottom lines. For example, suppose customers make more effort to steer clear of heavily packaged products in favor of more environmentally conscious ones. In that case, this will lead to a shift in thinking regarding the environmental toll of plastics.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Skills and Vocational Training Q-Nations should spend more money on skills and vocational training for practical work than on university education. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Skills and Vocational Training

Q-Nations should spend more money on skills and vocational training for practical work than on university education.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Because of changes in the labor market, many people believe that countries should prioritize vocational training over higher education. However, in my opinion, university education has incredible value, even though there are strong economic reasons to support this idea.

Those in favor of more practical skill training emphasize the financial advantages. Most university graduates are saddled with student debt and face bleak job prospects. On the other hand, training schools are inexpensive, quick, and immediately place students in stable employment. Jobs they train for are also likely to be recession-proof and long-term, such as cooks, hotel managers, and skilled technicians. Someone who is firmly established in such a job in their early 20s does not have to deal with the pressures of university life and its incumbent debts. Instead, they can begin to set aside money for a house or start a family.

Not having a university degree limits one's options. The available jobs will pay well at first and be secure, but there will be little room for advancement and almost no opportunity to change careers. A person with a university degree, on the other hand, may start at a lower level but has a higher earning potential in the future. It is also possible for them to pursue a variety of interests. Most good jobs require a bachelor's degree, even for simple internship positions. One is limited to manual labor or service industry jobs without such a degree. The actual learning at university, especially for those with multidisciplinary majors or studying at liberal arts schools, encourages students to consider a wide range of possible career options.

To summarise, increasing funding for vocational training is an appealing but short-sighted approach that limits opportunities. Instead, governments should continue to support higher education even in difficult economic times to reap future benefits.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Compared to the past, more people are now studying abroad because it is more convenient and cheaper. Do you think this is beneficial to the international student's home country? Will this trend change much in the future?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Compared to the past, more people are now studying abroad because it is more convenient and cheaper. Do you think this is beneficial to the international student's home country? Will this trend change much in the future?

ANSWER-Nowadays, many students choose to study abroad for various reasons related to their own future life and career. From my perspective, I believe that this trend can also benefit the home country of international students and that it will continue to grow in the coming years as a result of these advantages.

I believe it is beneficial to the home country of international students because they may choose to return and contribute to their home country after studying. For example, Vietnamese Professor Ngo Bao Chau was named one of four mathematicians to receive the Fields Medal, the world's most prestigious mathematics award, at the 2010 International Congress of Mathematics. After returning to Vietnam, he started to help and encourage aspiring Vietnamese from universities to study mathematics further. He not only contributed directly to the burgeoning field of Vietnamese mathematics but also continues to serve as an aspirational example to students of the rewards of studying abroad and then returning home.

I believe that this trend will continue in the future, as both foreign and domestic countries will support students through scholarships. For example, in Vietnam, it is common for students to apply for scholarships to study in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, France, and others. These countries have the resources and are willing to support international students because it increases the diversity of their campuses. Furthermore, the Vietnamese government encourages students from underprivileged backgrounds to study abroad through scholarships. They do this because students who study abroad typically return to Vietnam and help push forward economic development, as in the case of Ngo Bao Chau.

In conclusion, I believe that there are clear benefits for the home country of international students because of their potential academic and economic contributions after returning home. Developing countries, in particular, should invest heavily in programs that send students abroad, in addition to funding their educational infrastructure, if they want to build the kind of secure foundation that will allow the country to thrive for many years.



Ielts LISTENING · SELF-DRIVE TOURS IN THE USA With answers

Ielts LISTENING 

·  SELF-DRIVE TOURS IN THE USAWith answers

Section 1: Questions 1-6
Complete the notes below. Write ONE WORD ONLY.

SELF-DRIVE TOURS IN THE USA
Name: Andrea Brown
Address: 24, (1)  Road
Postcode: BH5 2OP
Phone: 07786643091
Heard about company from: (2) 
Possible self drive tours:
Trip one:
• Los Angeles: customer wants to visit some (3)  parks with their children
• Yosemite Park: customer wants to stay in a lodge, not a (4) 
Trip two:
• Customer wants to see the (5)  on the way to Cambria
• At Santa Monica: not interested in shopping
• At San Diego: wants to spend time on the (6) 

Questions 7-10
Complete the table below. Write ONE WORD OR A NUMBER.

(7)                    (8)   
(9)                    (10) 

Cambridge IELTS 10 Listening Test 1 – Section 2

Section 2: Questions 11 and 12
Choose TWO letters A-E.

Which TWO facilities at the leisure club have recently been improved?
 A the gym
 B the tracks
 C the indoor pool
 D the outdoor pool
 E the sports training for children

Questions 13-20
Complete the notes below. Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer.

Joining the leisure club
Personal Assessment
• New members should describe any (13) 
• The (14)  will be explained to you before you use the equipment.
• You will be given a six-week (15) 

Types of membership
• There is a compulsory £90 (16)  fee for members.
• Gold members are given (17)  to all the LP clubs.
• Premier members are given priority during (18)  hours.
• Premier members can bring some (19)  every month.
• Members should always take their (20)  with them.

Cambridge IELTS 10 Listening Test 1 – Section 3

Section 3: Questions 21-25
Choose the correct letter, A, B or C.

Global Design Competition
21. Students entering the design competition have to
 A produce an energy-efficient design
 B adapt an existing energy-saving appliance
 C develop a new use for current technology.

22. John chose a dishwasher because he wanted to make dishwashers
 A more appealing
 B more common
 C more economical

23. The stone in John’s ‘Rockpool’ design is used
 A for decoration
 B to switch it on
 C to stop water escaping

24. In the holding chamber, the carbon dioxide
 A changes back to a gas
 B dries the dishes
 C is allowed to cool

25. At the end of the cleaning process, the carbon dioxide
 A is released into the air
 B is disposed of with the waste
 C is collected ready to be re-used

Questions 26-30
Complete the notes below. Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer.

• John needs help preparing for his (26) 
• The professor advises John to make a (27)  of his design.
• John’s main problem is getting good quality (28) 
• The professor suggests John apply for a (29) 
• The professor will check the (30)  information in John’s written report.

Cambridge IELTS 10 Listening Test 1 – Section 4

Section 4: Questions 31-40
Complete the notes below. Write ONE WORD ONLY.

THE SPIRIT BEAR
General facts
• It is a white bear belonging to the black bear family.
• Its colour comes from an uncommon (31) 
• Local people believe that it has unusual (32) 
• They protect the bear from (33) 

Habitat
• The bear’s relationship with the forest is complex.
• Tree roots stop (34)  along salmon streams.
• The bears’ feeding habits provide nutrients for forest vegetation.
• It is currently found on a small number of (35) 

Threats
• Habitat is being lost due to deforestation and construction of (36)  by logging companies.
• Unrestricted (37)  is affecting the salmon supply.
• The bears’ existence is also threatened by their low rate of (38) 

Going forward
• Interested parties are working together.
• Logging companies must improve their (39)  of logging.
• Maintenance and (40)  of the spirit bears’ territory is needed.

ANSWERS

1. Ardleigh
2. newspaper
3. theme
4. tent
5. castle
6. beach
7. 2020
8. flight
9. 429
10. dinner
11. A
12. C
13. health problems
14. safety rules
15. plan
16. joining
17. free entry
18. peak
19. guests
20. photo card
21. C
22. A
23. B
24. A
25. C
26. presentation
27. model
28. materials
29. grant
30. technical
31. gene
32. powers
33. strangers
34. erosion
35. islands
36. roads
37. fishing
38. reproduction
39. methods
40. expansion


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Children Starting School Q-Some people think that children should begin their formal education very early age. Some think they should start at least seven years old. Discuss both views and give opinions.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Children Starting School 

Q-Some people think that children should begin their formal education very early age. Some think they should start at least seven years old. Discuss both views and give opinions.

There has been a growing push for children to begin school after seven in recent years. Although attending school from an early age benefits social development, children should be allowed to grow up outside of school until seven.

Proponents of early education frequently cite clinical research on the impact of the school on social skills. Children are exposed to a wide range of situations at home. For example, they may or may not have siblings; their parents may frequently take them out for playdates or neglect them at home, limiting their social skills. However, once children start school, they are all in more or less an equal environment where they must communicate with older and younger children, compromise when playing, learn to listen to their teachers, and start forming stable bonds based on empathy and shared interests others.

Regardless of the social benefits, children can develop more uniquely if they are allowed to postpone their entry into formal schooling. Finland is an excellent example, where students do not begin school until after seven. As a result, Finland produces high-achieving students, but this can be attributed to various factors other than school age. The impact on individual development, on the other hand, is palpable. According to child psychology research, children form the foundation of their personality between 4 and 7. As a result, it is critical to postpone the age at which they begin school to give them more breathing room and, ultimately, to produce a broader range of voices in society, as done in Finland.

The social benefits of school do not outweigh the individual positives of delayed schooling to both the individual and society. Therefore, schools should continue to research this area to advise policymakers better.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Smoking harms not only the smoker but also those who are nearby. Therefore, smoking should be banned in public places. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Smoking harms not only the smoker but also those who are nearby. Therefore, smoking should be banned in public places.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge.

Model Answer

Medical studies have shown that smoking causes health problems for smokers and those around them. As a result, many people believe that smoking should be prohibited. Even though there are arguments on both sides, I firmly believe that a ban is the best course of action.

Opponents of such a prohibition argue against it for a variety of reasons. First, they claim that passive smokers choose to breathe in other people's smoke by visiting places where it is permitted. As a result, if they prefer not to smoke passively, they do not need to visit places where smoking is allowed. Furthermore, they believe that a ban would drive many bars and pubs out of business because smokers would no longer frequent them. They also argue it is a matter of freedom of choice. Smoking is not against the law, so individuals should have the space to smoke where they wish.

However, there are more compelling arguments in favor of a prohibition. To begin with, it has been established that tobacco contains carcinogenic compounds that are harmful to anyone's health, not just the smoker's. Anyone in their vicinity is at risk of developing lung, mouth, and throat cancers and cancers of other organs. It's simply not fair to impose this on another person. Furthermore, people's health is more important than business. In any case, pubs and restaurants could adapt to a ban by, for example, allowing smoking areas.

Finally, smoking in public should be prohibited. Thousands of people's health would be improved, which is unquestionably a good thing.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Some of the methods used in advertising is unethical and unacceptable in today's society. To what extent do you agree with this view?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Some of the methods used in advertising is unethical and unacceptable in today's society.

To what extent do you agree with this view?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge.

Essay for IELTS Model Answer

Advertising has taken over the world we live in today. Advertisements can be found on television, the Internet, on the street, and even on our mobile phones. Many of the strategies used to sell a product or service, on the other hand, can be considered immoral or unacceptable.

To begin with, the fact that we cannot avoid advertising is a significant source of dissatisfaction. Constant images and signs everywhere we look can be very distracting and annoying. Take, for example, mobile phone advertising. Mobile companies can now send advertising messages to consumers' phones via SMS whenever they want with the latest technology. Although we expect advertisements in various situations, it appears that there are only a few places where we can avoid them.

Another unethical aspect of advertising is how it encourages people to buy products they may not need or cannot afford. Children and teenagers, for example, are primarily influenced by advertisements depicting the latest toys, clothing, or music. This can put parents under a lot of pressure to buy these products.

Furthermore, while tobacco products and alcohol advertising have long been contentious, cigarette advertisements have only recently been banned in many countries. Although alcohol advertisements may encourage excessive consumption and underage drinking, no restrictions have been imposed on this type of advertising in the same way that smoking advertising has.

It is undoubtedly true that advertising is a standard feature of our lives. Therefore, people are constantly encouraged to buy products or services that might be too expensive, unnecessary, or even unhealthy. In conclusion, many aspects of advertising appear morally wrong and are not acceptable in today's society.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Food Additives Essay Q-Do the dangers of chemicals in food production and preservation outweigh the advantages?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Food Additives Essay

Q-Do the dangers of chemicals in food production and preservation outweigh the advantages?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge.

Food Additives Essay Model Answer

Today, most foods sold in small stores and supermarkets contain chemicals to improve production and ensure the food lasts longer. However, there are concerns that these may have negative consequences. The risks associated with this, in my opinion, outweigh the benefits.

Chemicals are added to food for a variety of reasons. First, it is to improve the product's appearance, which is accomplished through colorings, which encourage people to purchase food that would otherwise not look appealing to eat. Another reason is to keep the food fresh. So much of the food we eat would be wasted if it weren't for its chemicals. 

Based on this evidence, it is clear that the primary benefits accrue to the companies rather than the customers. Although companies claim that these food additives are safe and have research to back up their claims, the study may be biased because it comes from their own companies or people with connections to these companies. Reports in the press about possible links to various health issues, such as cancer, are standard these days. Food additives have also been linked to problems in children, such as hyperactivity.

To summarise, while there are advantages to putting chemicals in food, I believe that these primarily benefit the companies while posing a risk to the public. It is unlikely that this practice can be stopped, so food must be clearly labeled, and I hope that organic products will become more readily available at reasonable prices.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Many working people get little or no exercise either during the working day or in their free time and have health problems. Why do so many working people not get enough exercise? What can be done about this problem?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Many working people get little or no exercise either during the working day or in their free time and have health problems.

Why do so many working people not get enough exercise?

What can be done about this problem?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge.

Model Answer:

The proportion of workers suffering from various health-related issues is increasing faster than ever before, and the general health of working-class people is deteriorating. Workplace stress, a lack of physical activity, and reliance on machines to perform human tasks have contributed to such disasters. Exercises, outdoor activities, and encouragement from employers and the government to work out and a well-balanced diet are solutions to this problem.

One of the primary reasons working people do not exercise enough is the abysmal working environment, where work is highly competitive and full of anxiety. Employers, for example, have constant deadlines and challenging targets at their offices, and to meet them, they must work long hours every day. It depletes their stamina, and as a result, they don't want to exercise even when they're at home. Furthermore, reliance on technology has exacerbated the situation. People's available time for exercise has been replaced by browsing the internet, watching television, and checking their social media accounts due to technological advancements. They also prefer to drive than to walk and use washing machines to clean their clothes- to give some examples. This trend, in turn, has negative impacts on their health.

Physical activity is required to address the issue. Those workers must abandon their sedentary lifestyles and begin moving to stay fit. The government can facilitate outdoor activities so that people can get out and participate in them after work hours. Employers must recognize that healthy employees mean higher productivity and should provide exercise facilities on the premises. To illustrate how sports and exercise facilities can encourage employees to exercise. Employees in those offices are practically more inclined to exercise than those found in areas where rare public parks and exercise facilities are. Finally, the workers have to follow a balanced diet to achieve a better result, and the office can help them with that too.

In conclusion, exercise is vital to our health, productivity, and life. Consequently, workers, authorities, employers, and individuals should collaborate to make everyone's lifestyle healthier by adding more time for exercise and helping follow a balanced diet.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Some employers offer their employees subsidized membership in a gym or sports clubs, believing that this will make their staff healthier and thus more effective at work. However, other employers see no benefit in so doing.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Some employers offer their employees subsidized membership in a gym or sports clubs, believing that this will make their staff healthier and thus more effective at work. However, other employers see no benefit in so doing.

-Discuss both views and give your opinion.

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge.

Model Answer:

A healthy lifestyle and work performance are both dependent on good health. As a result, many employers look for ways to provide perks, such as a gym or sports club sponsorship, believing that healthier and happier employees will be more productive at work. On the other hand, many other employers do not invest in it. The essay will look at both sides, but I believe that different motivations and rewards will produce effective results when combined with this initiative.

The proponents of the employer-provided gym or sports club subsidies believe that physical and mental wellness are prerequisites for optimal work performance. Sporty people are less likely to get sick, take fewer sick days, and thus cause minor disruptions in their workplace's daily operations. Sport is also an excellent way to foster team spirit and interpersonal skills. Therefore, a harmonious professional relationship fostered by employees who go to the gym or participate in sports will undoubtedly improve work efficacy. The proponents of the employer-provided gym or sports club subsidies believe that physical and mental wellness are required for optimal work performance. Sporty people are less likely to become ill, take fewer sick days, and thus cause minor disruptions in their workplace's daily operations. Furthermore, sports are an excellent way to foster team spirit and interpersonal skills. Therefore, a harmonious professional relationship between employees who go to the gym or participate in sports will undoubtedly improve work efficacy.

Opponents of gym or sports facility funding, on the other hand, argue that companies should instead focus on incentives that matter to employees, such as job prospects, pay raises, job satisfaction, training opportunities, reasonable workloads, and holidays. For example, employees should have enough tangible rewards to work effectively if their performance is directly linked to pay raises or career advancement. Similarly, if employees can identify meaningful goals or experience job satisfaction, they should be intrinsically motivated to perform well at work. For example, studies show that employees work more diligently when motivated and rewarded rather than when they have access to facilities such as gyms.

In conclusion, I believe that the office's gym or sports club membership is one of many compelling motivations for some employees to work efficiently at work. However, monetary or other tangible or intangible rewards are more valuable to many others. As a result, it is expected that employers will provide a variety of extrinsic and intrinsic motivators to promote workplace productivity.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Some people think that secondary school children should study international news as one of the school subjects. Other people believe that it is a waste of valuable school time. What do you think?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Some people think that secondary school children should study international news as one of the school subjects. Other people believe that it is a waste of valuable school time. What do you think?

-Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge.

Model Answer: 

The ability and potential of the global media to shape and educate today's youth are significant. However, while some believe that the global media and international news have no negative impact on secondary education, others believe that those students should study international news to reap its benefits. This essay attempts to investigate the issue by delving deeply into it. Therefore, global information should be included in secondary school curricula.

On the one hand, global media broadens young people's understanding of current events and broadens their perspectives. So it is because international affairs, as a component of education, raises their awareness and knowledge while also connecting global youths on the same platforms. A study conducted by Oxford sociologists, for example, found that the media heavily influenced teenagers' understanding of current events, which has a highly positive impact on making them aware of the world. This awareness transforms them into global citizens and encourages them to share their ideas.

On the contrary, many critics argue that if negative issues of international events such as wars and civil unrest were included in their education, teenagers would be negatively affected. Exposure to violence frequently leads to depression, and youths may develop apathy toward our history and global politics. Recent surveys, for example, have discovered that depressed teenagers often blame their depression on the state of the world. Because mental health is an important goal of secondary education, it is debatable whether studying international news would benefit young students.

In conclusion, there are reasons for and against the study of news in secondary school. However, educators and authorities can make it more useful by adopting proper policy and teaching methods and reap the benefits of teaching young students international news as part of their academic education.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Some people think computers and the Internet are essential in children's study, but others think students can learn more effectively in schools and teachers. -Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Some people think computers and the Internet are essential in children's study, but others think students can learn more effectively in schools and teachers.

-Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

-Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge.

Model Answer: [Opinion: technologies can complement more traditional teaching without being used as a replacement]

Children's study and learning habits today, both at home and school, are vastly different from past ones. This shift has been aided by the increased availability and low cost of modern technology. However, I believe that, while current technologies such as computers and the Internet are essential for assisting a child's learning, this learning should be guided and directed by the experience of human teachers.

Computers and the Internet, without a doubt, are widely used in education, and they can present knowledge in a vivid and novel manner. The computer and the Internet can also help students improve their general understanding of how to solve problems in their studies and prepare them for later life. However, the information that the computer can display must be preprogrammed and must be updated regularly. For example, the Internet may not always be reliable because frequently conflicting and false information is available when obtained from untrustworthy sources.

Traditional and long-established practice is for children to study and gain knowledge at school, learning skills in various ways taught by conventional methods by teachers. A school is where students gather to be educated and learn from each other and human educators. At school, for instance, students' development is orchestrated stage by stage, step by step by experienced teachers, and their knowledge acquisition is guided and backed up systematically.

To conclude, I do not believe that it will help students learn effectively and impressively to overemphasize the use of computers and the Internet. Instead, I feel that modern technologies can complement more traditional teaching and learning methods without being used as a replacement for these traditions.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Some people think governments should care more about the elderly, while others believe they should focus on investing in education for younger people. -Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Some people think governments should care more about the elderly, while others believe they should focus on investing in education for younger people.

-Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

Today, many people believe that it is more important to prioritize education for children than for the elderly. This, in my opinion, makes practical sense but ignores more essential justifications.

Those who support education can quickly reap the benefits. Some countries have gone so far as to claim that education is the most important national priority, deserving of the most significant allocation of resources. This was famously the case decades ago in countries like Japan, South Korea, and Finland. Its effectiveness has been demonstrated by the growth of innovative industries and steadily rising living standards. The conclusions drawn from those countries are straightforward: money spent on education contributes to the creation of jobs and the stimulation of the consumer economy in the short term, but the long-term benefits of a well-educated populace will benefit political participation, the economy, safety, and a variety of other areas.

Nonetheless, investment in education has peaked, and elderly care is a sadly underserved area. No one would advocate drastically reducing education budgets, but some resources should be directed toward those who have contributed the most to current living standards. Previous generations frequently had to work longer hours at more complicated jobs to build the modern infrastructure and political and economic systems that we now take for granted. Many of these people struggle to pay their bills as they get older if they do not have a supportive, financially stable family. They may no longer be able to work, so it is up to the government to find ways to care for them, ranging from retirement homes to monthly payments for living expenses, to be aware of how policy changes may affect older people.

Finally, while education is essential, it is even more important to consider the debt owed to the elderly and take good care of them. Governments must balance many priorities, but older people should not be at the bottom of the list.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Some people think that resources should be spent on protecting wild animals, while others believe those would be better used for the human population. Discuss both sides and give your own opinion.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Some people think that resources should be spent on protecting wild animals, while others believe those would be better used for the human population.

Discuss both sides and give your own opinion.

Many people question the logic of spending money and time on wild animals when so many people are in need. However, the valid reasons for prioritizing humanity do not outweigh the fact that animals urgently require refuge.

Those who advocate for less animal welfare believe that human life is intrinsically more valuable. Humans have higher reasoning abilities, more emotionally complex lives, and, most importantly, a primary obligation to other species members. When humans and animals come into conflict, this is an excellent example. For example, a boy recently fell into a gorilla cage at a zoo, and the wild animal was slaughtered to protect the child. There was a significant public outcry, but only extremes would argue that humans are responsible. There was widespread public outrage, but only extremists would argue that humans should die in such circumstances. In effect, increased funding for wildlife means less money for charities that help the poor and an implicit preference for animals over humans.

However, the threat to wild animals is pressing, and responsible action is required. Regardless of the vulnerability of individual humans, nothing threatens humanity as a whole. Unfortunately, this is not the case for endangered species such as bald eagles, cheetahs, lions, and polar bears. Climate change, deforestation, and poaching are among the threats they face. All of these are direct outcomes of human activity. Without our assistance, there is a real risk that some species on the verge of extinction will become extinct in the coming decades. There will be no way to bring them back once they have become extinct, and this is the existential threat that should compel continued funding for wildlife conservation programs.

In conclusion, while human life is more valuable, the threat to at-risk animals is more significant, validating human efforts. The longer we ignore animals, the more likely they will become extinct.



IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Throughout history, male leaders have led us into violence and conflict. If female leaders govern society, it will be more peaceful. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Throughout history, male leaders have led us into violence and conflict. If female leaders govern society, it will be more peaceful.

To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?

Many people believe that the male propensity for violence is at the root of many international conflicts and that societies ruled by women may be more peaceful. This, in my opinion, is most likely correct.

Some object to this ostensibly sexist viewpoint because of previous examples of female leaders. Although the sample size is much smaller, leaders such as Margaret Thatcher, Cleopatra, Hillary Clinton, Condoleezza Rice, Queen Elisabeth I, Joan of Arc, and countless others have initiated, maintained, and escalated violent conflicts. There are few examples of peaceful female leaders, and those that do exist are proportionate to male leaders. Historical evidence does not support the claim that women are more delicate. One important caveat is that these are exceptions, and women rulers have held power in a world dominated by the male hierarchy. It is impossible to predict how peaceful the world would be if women held the highest positions of power.

Furthermore, men are predisposed to be aggressive by nature. This is a result of both biology and society. Men have higher testosterone levels than women, linked to increased aggressive and violent behavior. This instinct can be suppressed in men, but it has the potential to undermine their better nature at any time. Boys are raised from a young age to be tough, not back down, not compromise, and idolize violent heroes. As a result, most male role models, from historical figures to action stars and even videogame characters, are violent. It isn't easy to distinguish between nature and nurture, but the result of their interaction is clear for both males and females.

In conclusion, men are more violent, whereas women are more likely to be peaceful if allowed to rule widely. Another issue is the desirability of ending all conflicts and their global impact.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Some people believe that allowing children to make their own choices on everyday matters (such as food, clothes, and entertainment) is likely to result in individuals who only think about their wishes. However, other people believe that it is essential for children to decide matters that affect them. -Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Some people believe that allowing children to make their own choices on everyday matters (such as food, clothes, and entertainment) is likely to result in individuals who only think about their wishes. However, other people believe that it is essential for children to decide matters that affect them.

-Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

ANSWER-One point of contention among parents is whether or not children should be trusted to make their own decisions and what effect this might have on their sense of responsibility. Although decision-making skills will help in some ways, I believe that parents should make choices for their children to make them more aware of others.

On the one hand, children who are given the freedom to make their own decisions will grow up with a strong sense of responsibility. This is best illustrated by the contrast between helicopter parents and more liberal parents. Helicopter parents lavish attention on their children and make the majority of their decisions for them. These children will most likely become reliant on their parents over time. Helicopter parents smother their children with attention and make the majority of their decisions for them. Over time, these kids will likely become dependent on their parents. For example, if your parents always pick out your clothes, you never have to check weather forecasts, make choices about what colors match, or concern yourself with trends in fashion. Later in life, these kids will not have developed any of these skills because of their parents. Contrast this with children who pick out their clothes; they will have to consider these factors carefully, making them more responsible for shopping and taking care of their wardrobe.

On the other hand, I believe that parents should make most decisions for their children to be more responsive to others. Some parents, for example, have made the logical and ethical decision to become vegetarians, forcing their children to do the same. This can be beneficial not only to their health but also to the environment. Furthermore, it is an opportunity for parents to teach their children about ethics. Parents, for example, may argue that industrial farming is inhumane and that animals should be treated with tremendous respect. This may have a knock-on effect, causing their children to be more considerate of others.

To summarise, parents should make most decisions for their children to be more empathetic. They should also collaborate with teachers in their efforts to raise conscientious future citizens.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Most agree that we should be training children to recycle waste to preserve the Earth’s natural resources. However, some believe that parents should teach their children to recycle waste, while others feel schools are more responsible. -Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Most agree that we should be training children to recycle waste to preserve the Earth’s natural resources. However, some believe that parents should teach their children to recycle waste, while others feel schools are more responsible.

-Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

Most people agree that recycling is an essential part of combating climate change, and the primary debate now is whether parents or teachers should bear the most responsibility. Schools, in my opinion, reach the most significant number of children overall.

Many people believe that instilling values is a parental responsibility. However, parents have an inalienable right to influence their children based on their beliefs. A Muslim living in a Christian country, for example, will most likely continue to practice many Islamic traditions. Even if the child learns about Judeo-Christian tenets implicitly or explicitly in school, the parents have the right to raise their child in the way they believe is most culturally appropriate. This also applies to recycling, though it is hardly a matter of subjective belief to most informed citizens today.

Despite the rare potential parents against recycling, schools should be where recycling is taught because government mandates will reach all children. Unfortunately, there is no way to legislate every single family to make their children recycle, but this can be quickly enacted in schools. An excellent example of this would be in Japan, where school children take an active role in cleaning and separating their rubbish for recycling. This makes a huge difference, but it is also a nationally comprehensive approach to fostering life-long environmentally conscious habits across an entire generation.

In conclusion, schools are more likely to have a more significant impact on recycling habits, and therefore this is their responsibility. Therefore, governments ought to make recycling one of their top educational priorities in the future as part of a cohesive plan to better the environment.



IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Developing the economy will permanently damage the environment. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Developing the economy will permanently damage the environment.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

It is frequently asserted that economic advancement must always come at the expense of the environment. While this is not true for established economies, it is valid for nations seeking to establish a foothold in the global marketplace.

Only developed countries have the right to protect the environment without suffering significant economic consequences. The best examples of this can be found in advanced economies worldwide, including Japan and South Korea in Asia, France and Germany in Europe, and the UAE and Kuwait in the Middle East. All of these countries are already dominant in various global economic sectors. For example, Germany leads the world in automobile manufacturing and other high-end goods. Japan is famous for its electronics and entertainments brands. This frees them to build more energy-efficient factories haughtily, tax companies, pass public awareness bans and regulate pollution far more aggressively than developing nations.

Developing countries lack both the resources and the desire to protect the environment. Vietnam, a rapidly evolving and populous country, is an excellent example. Offshore drilling has contributed significantly to their economic growth, resulting in oil spills and factories dotting the countryside, contributing to growing air pollution concerns. Many people rely on these businesses for a living, and the companies are attempting to compete with developed nations despite a significant initial competitive disadvantage. As a result, they must cut environmental corners or risk falling further behind the rest of the world to catch up.

In conclusion, environmental conservation is a privilege for countries that historically contributed the most to climate change. However, developed nations ought to make allowances for countries that are still struggling to provide their citizenry with a decent standard of living.


Q-It is often argued that reading non-fiction books are better than reading fiction. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-It is often argued that reading non-fiction books are better than reading fiction. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

ANSWER-Books are an essential part of our daily lives. Reading books provides us with excellent knowledge and allows us to improve our language skills. As a result, I usually give nonfiction books more encouragement than fiction books. This essay has elucidated the reasons why I believe this. To begin with, most fiction books depict real-life incidents or events from around the world. As a result, readers could quickly feel, imagine, and comprehend the sequences. Non-fiction books, on the other hand, will always depict fictitious ideas. As a result, children will be less impacted by these stories than they believe; the events described in the books will become a reality anytime soon. Therefore, we must make children aware of fact rather than an unreal and fancy world. Perhaps series like "Superman," "Star Wars," and so on have no relevance when considering real life.

Furthermore, non-fiction books articulate several false facts that would lead us nowhere. Shakespeare's classics, for example, are so natural and realistic that they transport readers to a soothing and mesmerizing reading experience. So, if you're going to recommend a book to a child, make it a nonfiction book. To summarise, selecting the appropriate text is entirely in the reader's best interest. However, in my opinion, a plethora of non-fiction books available would expose readers to realities and teach them how to deal with life's challenges.

.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Some people believe that sharing as much information as possible in scientific research, business, and the academic world is good. Others think some information is too significant or too valuable to be shared freely. Discuss both of these views and give your own opinion.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Some people believe that sharing as much information as possible in scientific research, business, and the academic world is good. Others think some information is too significant or too valuable to be shared freely. 

Discuss both of these views and give your own opinion.

ANSWER-Some public members believe that it is sufficient to pass on informative details as can be found in art research, business, and the educational system. Others argue that only a few notes are knowledgeable and should be exchanged for free. Points, in my opinion, should not be kept secret if they are not harmful to the public, and I will expand on this topic in the following paragraphs. First and foremost, society and students are eager to learn about art, technology, and other free lessons. Furthermore, keeping something hidden may lead to discrimination between the rich and the poor. For example, the government tries to keep details from the public, even though the effect of the notes may be harmful to society.

Second, because they cannot afford the course fees, students may not receive a proper education, leaving them disappointed even if they have the potential to exploit the details in the future. Furthermore, the consequences of concealing some points may result in a decrease in economic growth. Third, more families are stepping forward to start small-scale businesses, but they are hesitant to invest the money due to a lack of knowledge; therefore, the relevant authorities must reveal the necessary information to communities. On the other hand, others argue that the pronunciation should not be made public because some people may use it to their advantage to use another harmful method to the world. For example, several terrorist organizations attempt to obtain detailed information from authorities to use it to destroy the world and fight for economic dominance. Therefore, the scientist and related staff attempt not to publish these points to avoid misuse by others. In conclusion, this topic has many advantages and disadvantages, but the benefits outweigh the disadvantages.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Some teachers think that international student exchange would benefit all teenage school students. --Do you believe that its advantages would outweigh its disadvantages?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Some teachers think that international student exchange would benefit all teenage school students. --Do you believe that its advantages would outweigh its disadvantages?

Some teachers have heated debates about the benefits and drawbacks of international student exchange. Even though some people are skeptical of its benefits and practicality, I believe that the benefits outweigh the disadvantages for the vast majority of students. On the one hand, being an exchange student is difficult for those born into low-income families or who do not meet the financial requirements. Teenagers, for example, have few opportunities to participate in international exchange programs in developing countries because their families cannot afford it with their limited budget or income. In addition, to become an exchange student.

The youth must equip themselves with knowledge and plenty of soft skills. If a shy or inactive teenager, for instance, is made to integrate a new society and culture, they may not adapt to the novel situation due to the lack of life skills. On the other hand

, I support the idea that exchange

 education brings more potential benefits to the students

. As can be known, this

 method will help the students

 construct critical thinking and lifelong adaptability. For instance, being in a new country with an entirely different culture, the students

 have to immerse themselves in the integration by exposing the contemporary daily life of the host families and emulating their lifestyle. With the help of this

 approach, the students

 quickly broaden their horizons and gain more practical knowledge. Moreover, being an exchange

 student

 also.

 Motivate them to maintain self-learning skills, as they have access to advanced education and need to be fluent in the foreign language. They have agile and flexible thinking in order not to incur culture shock. In conclusion, people should consider the international exchange

 program seriously as it would significantly positively impact the students

' mindset.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Advertising aimed at children should be banned. -To what extent do you agree or disagree

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Advertising aimed at children should be banned. 

-To what extent do you agree or disagree

Currently, advertisements have a significant impact on our daily lives. Therefore, I wholeheartedly agree with the statement that commercial advertisements aimed at children should be prohibited because they may harm the next generation's perception and value. One of the most obvious reasons is that children cannot think for themselves. In most cases, juniors absorb whatever knowledge they can get their hands on without making an informed decision. As a result, some deceptive campaigns may harm children's world perceptions. Some advertisements, for example, claim that their products can provide consumers with the ability to fight criminals.

When confronted with a criminal, a young consumer who uses that product may attempt to stop the offender on their own rather than reporting the crime to the police, which is extremely dangerous to their lives. Another reason is that these advertisements may encourage juniors to pay attention to commodity brand names. Many students may adopt this fashionable trend due to widespread advertising for a specific product. 

However, because of economic disparities between families, not every household can afford to buy advertised items for their children. Because of the relatively high cost, this is especially true for people from low-income families. For example, children who can afford expensive toys may not want to share them with those who cannot. As a result, discrimination among these juniors is possible. To summarise, I am convinced that this campaign, which primarily targets young people, should be strictly limited due to the adverse effects it has had on the next generation.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Friends, can you please check my essay. The topic is - Eventually, technology will solve the most critical environmental problems the world faces today. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Friends, can you please check my essay. The topic is - Eventually, technology will solve the most critical environmental problems the world faces today. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

ANSWER-It is debatable whether technology will solve many environmental problems such as pollution, global warming, and humans.

Whether or not environmental issues can be resolved entirely by technology is a matter for scientists to investigate, but selective technical methodology applications will help to reduce environmental concerns. For example, when the entire world is being threatened by global warming, recycling industrial chemical waste with an electric machine will be a boon to humanity. In addition, by installing high-quality electric gadgets in various factories and plants that are constantly polluting the environment, technology can help to reduce the high volume of fog.

The deployment of sewage treatment plants in various residential societies will reprocess human waste and recycle water for reuse inside toilets. Various non-governmental organizations (NGOs) can use social media to advocate for plantations to reduce environmental problems; however, excessive use of technology is the primary cause of environmental issues. On the other hand, technology is the leading cause of pollution, and scientists predict that there will be a hole in the earth's ozone layer. If we do not reduce our reliance on technology, such as automobiles, trucks, and coal-fired locomotives, we will continue to pollute our environment. Finally, it is proposed that human beings benefit from the balanced use of technology.


IELTS SPEAKING PART 2 Part 2 1. Are IT-related jobs valued more by society?

IELTS SPEAKING PART 2

Part 2

1. Are IT-related jobs valued more by society?

It's difficult to argue that IT-related jobs are more valuable in society. Without a doubt, information technology is transforming almost every industry in modern society, and as a result, information technology careers have grown in importance and value. However, many businesses today cannot exist, let alone compete, without the support of IT systems.

2. Is the quality of products worse than before?

No, the quality of the products has somewhat improved considerably than before. Today's products are of higher quality in terms of their utility, usability, or usefulness for their consumers. There are many reasons for that, such as better understanding of actual customer needs, application of modern technology, lower manufacturing cost, etc.

3. What kinds of things do people like to repair by themselves?

Many things can be repaired at home, such as eyeglasses, leaky pipes, headphones, etc. Thanks to online platforms such as YouTube and Google, people can now learn how to fix things themselves. For instance, I recently fixed my rice cooker problem by watching YouTube videos. Many items, it turns out, are surprisingly simple to repair. I encourage people to set their broken things rather than buy new ones all the time.

4. Why do people like to repair their mobile phones in specialized stores?

The main reason is that people prefer to get the phone's warranty instead. Another reason is that most cellphone manufacturers use an authorized expert to repair their devices. People trust their service with professional cell phone repair, even though specialized stores sometimes charge more than other stores.



IELTS SPEAKING PART 3 "Describe a time when you told your friend an important truth."

IELTS SPEAKING PART 3

"Describe a time when you told your friend an important truth."

1. Do you think we should tell the truth at all times?

I don't think it's a good idea always to tell the truth. If the fact only serves to hurt someone, I believe we should avoid telling the truth.

2. How do you know when others are telling the truth?

The facial expressions of others reveal a lot about how they are telling the truth. When lying, for example, people begin to sweat or avoid eye contact.

However, sweating can occur for various reasons, making it difficult to determine whether people are lying or are simply physically uncomfortable.

3. Do you think it is essential to win the game or follow the rules?

If people did not follow the rules, the victory would be hollow. As a result, I do not believe the win was well-deserved.

So, while the outcome is essential, following the rules is even more critical.

4. Sometimes, people should tell lies. Do you agree?

Yes, let us avoid telling the truth if it serves no purpose other than to hurt other people's feelings.

For example, telling someone right before a party that they don't look good in their dress will make them feel uneasy and reduce their confidence.


IELTS SPEAKING PART 3 “Describe a time when you needed to use your imagination.”

IELTS SPEAKING PART 3

“Describe a time when you needed to use your imagination.”

1. Do you think adults can have lots of imagination?

I don't believe that age has any bearing on imagination. Both children and adults can imagine things. The only difference is that real-world knowledge does not limit children's vision.

As a result, children can sometimes conjure up seemingly impossible scenarios.

2. Do you think imagination is necessary for scientists?

All scientific discoveries are about looking at something from a new or different perspective.

So, imagination is undoubtedly essential for scientists. Many would have seen an apple fall from a tree before Newton, but he was the first to relate it to a force.

3. What kind of jobs need imagination?

I think the most extensive field that needs imagination is science. But, then, another lot which I feel is being a fantasy author. A fantasy author puts down his vision on a piece of paper.

I think some of the famous fantasy authors like Tolkien or JK Rowling are people with endless imagination.

4. What subjects are helpful for people’s imagination?

Literature, in my opinion, can help to develop imagination. Reading Alice in Wonderland was a thrilling experience for me.

I read a fantasy novel first, and I couldn't put it down. After reading each chapter, I imagined what would happen next, which was nothing more than a form of exercise for my imagination.


IELTS SPEAKING PART 3 “Describe your favorite singer.” 1. Do singers play an essential role in your country?

IELTS SPEAKING PART 3

“Describe your favorite singer.”

1. Do singers play an essential role in your country?

Yes, singers play an essential role in my country. They are an integral part of our culture, and their songs are played in various ceremonies, weddings, and parties.

2. Do you think celebrities have a lot of income?

Celebrities make a lot of money, but I believe it is justified. They work hard and keep us entertained.

Because of their popularity, they also give up their privacy and personal space.

3. In your country, do people prefer to listen to traditional or foreign music?

The older generation in my country still enjoys traditional music, but the younger generation has been influenced by the Western world and prefers to listen to foreign music.


IELTS SPEAKING PART 3 “Describe a bag you want to own.” 1. Why do you think women like to buy bags?

IELTS SPEAKING PART 3

“Describe a bag you want to own.”

1. Why do you think women like to buy bags?

Women prefer to buy bags to securely carry their makeup, keys, credit cards, and other valuables.

In addition, women regard bags as a fashion statement that helps them complete their overall look. Some women enjoy purchasing the most recent trend bags and matching them to their outfits.

2. Is the backpack practical in life?

Yes, backpacks allow you to be comfortable and hands-free. They don’t put much strain on the body and can be easily carried for hours.

3. Why are some people willing to buy expensive bags?

Some people are willing to buy expensive bags because they are made from suitable materials and last longer.

Some people buy expensive designer bags because they associate them with status and like to flaunt them in front of friends and relatives.

4. In the future, what changes will bags have?

Bags made from canvas faux leather (vegan leather) will gain more popularity as more people realize that humanity is harming animals to harvest leather.

Bags will also become more practical, and convertible bags that go from handbag to backpack to shoulder load will be more common.

5. Why do children need to carry a uniform schoolbag?

Schools want all students to look the same, requiring similar school bags. Requiring everyone to dress uniformly improves academic performance and increases student discipline.

Children require school bags to organize their books and personal belongings.


IELTS SPEAKING Work What is your job?

IELTS SPEAKING

Work

What is your job?

I am currently employed as an office manager at a large marketing firm. I've been with the company for about five years. I'm usually tasked with assisting a specific company in increasing sales through various marketing strategies.

Do you have to work with other people?

Oh yes, all the time. It's a big office, and we all have to work as a team if we want to achieve results. I need to liaise with colleagues, such as the graphic designers, and I also have administration staff who work under me. And of course, I also have to work alongside the companies we provide marketing for. So yes, I have to work with other people.

Do you think you will change jobs in the future?

Well, that's not something I'm considering right now because I enjoy what I do, and it's a great company to work for. In addition, the pay is competitive, and they offer additional benefits such as flex time and end-of-year bonuses. But, as I've said before, change is always a good thing, so I don't see myself staying there indefinitely. But I'm sure I'll change my mind one day.


IELTS SPEAKING Books What kind of books do you like to read?

IELTS SPEAKING

Books

What kind of books do you like to read?

I mostly enjoy reading biographies. It's fascinating to read about people's real lives, especially when they've had interesting lives and dealt with various problems. I also read fiction, but it's often difficult to find a book that I enjoy. I also enjoy reading books about current events.

Do you read the same kind of books now that you read when you were a child?

No, not at all. I didn't read much as a child, but I mainly read fiction, such as fairy tales. Things like The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe come to mind. Stuff from your imagination.

When do you think is the best time to read?

I think any time is fine, but because I like to concentrate when I read, I can't read for a short period, such as on a bus ride, as some people do. So, instead, I want to set aside some time to enjoy it. So, if I have some free time over the weekend, I may read for a few hours. And I almost always read before going to bed because it helps me sleep.


ELTS SPEAKING Leisure time What do you like to do in your free time?

IELTS SPEAKING

Leisure time

What do you like to do in your free time?

I participate in a lot of sports. I mostly play football with a local team on Wednesday nights and Sunday afternoons. I also enjoy playing tennis and squash when I have the opportunity, but I don't have the time to do so every week. In addition, I work pretty hard now, so I don't have a lot of free time.

Have your leisure activities changed since you were a child?

Not a great deal. I used to love playing football when I was young - I played a lot at school. Of course, I did all the other things kids loved to do, such as going out on bike rides after school and things.

Do you prefer to spend your free time alone or with other people?

It all depends on how I'm feeling. I believe that most people require some alone time. My job can be pretty stressful at times, and I spend a lot of time there with others, so it's nice to come home and relax with a book or something. But I get bored if I spend too much time alone, so I like to go out in the evening and meet friends or play football.


IELTS SPEAKING Work What is your job?

IELTS SPEAKING

Work

What is your job?

I am currently employed as an office manager at a large marketing firm. I've been with the company for about five years. I'm usually tasked with assisting a specific company in increasing sales through various marketing strategies.

Do you have to work with other people?

Oh yes, all the time. It's a big office, and we all have to work as a team if we want to achieve results. I need to liaise with colleagues, such as the graphic designers, and I also have administration staff who work under me. And of course, I also have to work alongside the companies we provide marketing for. So yes, I have to work with other people.

Do you think you will change jobs in the future?

Well, that's not something I'm considering right now because I enjoy what I do, and it's a great company to work for. In addition, the pay is competitive, and they offer additional benefits such as flex time and end-of-year bonuses. But, as I've said before, change is always a good thing, so I don't see myself staying there indefinitely. But I'm sure I'll change my mind one day.


IELTS SPEAKING PART 2/3 Introduction Everyone faces different kinds of problems in our life. While not everyone succeeds in coming up with a solution, some people can solve problems with their cleverness to avoid emergencies. Here I would like to talk about a person who smartly solved the problem.

IELTS SPEAKING PART 2/3

Introduction

Everyone faces different kinds of problems in our life. While not everyone succeeds in coming up with a solution, some people can solve problems with their cleverness to avoid emergencies. Here I would like to talk about a person who smartly solved the problem.

Who is the person?

The person who I would like to talk about is my niece.

What was the problem?

A few years ago, my dad got erythema near his ankle. He saw his doctor and got some medicines, but it took time to recover. That was winter, and it could be cold without wearing socks. So we bought different types of socks and changed how to wear socks. But, when the socks touched the erythema, It always made him feel itchy.

How does the person solve the problem?

One day, my niece knew it, just said: find some old socks and cut a hole in that place, only let the erythema exposed out. We all agree with her idea. The problem that has plagued us for a few days has been solved.

and explain why you think the person did it smartly

My niece is a high school student now, and she has always found easy and intelligent ways to solve problems since she is young. This time, she lets us simply and quickly free from the worries. Her idea saved money and solved this problem soon.

Part 3

1. Do you think children are born intelligent or learn to be innovative?

Everyone is born with natural intelligence, intelligence comes from parents, and genes significantly contribute to their child's intelligence. Intelligent children have more learning potential and learn more quickly than other children. But the environment society where the child lives can improve and grow his intellectual quotient.

2. What is the difference between a parent's and a teacher's role in a child's education?

Parents are the child's first role model. Children behave, react, and imitate the same as their parents. Good parental support helps children be positive, healthy, and good lifelong learners.

Teachers' significant challenges are to nurture children's learning. The teacher is also the first person from whom a child learns his social skills. As the child grows and develops different skills, the teacher becomes a real guide in nurturing his interest and learning to make him more independent.

3. How can we help children realize their talents?

We should encourage the children's passions to expose the children to various activities (sports, arts, and academics ); meanwhile, let the children try to be a leader or team players to find out the children's strengths. It is also essential that you don't be afraid to let something go and let your child experience failure; stay tuned into your child's world.

4. Does the government provide enough support to education in your view?

The government tried its best to provide enough support for education in my country, but the schools in rural areas need more help from the government. Children in rural areas can better learn, grow, and develop different skills with sufficient facilities and resources.


IELTS Speaking Part 3 Topic: Life experience. Q. 1. Do you agree that we learn best from our mistakes?

IELTS Speaking Part 3 

Topic: Life experience.

Q. 1. Do you agree that we learn best from our mistakes?

Answer: Many people believe that our mistakes are our best teachers because they can teach us so much. Some of the most important life lessons we will ever learn will come from our mistakes or poor decisions. So, I agree with the suggestion that we learn best from our mistakes if we choose to learn from them by not repeating them in the future. However, whether or not we learn the most from our mistakes is heavily influenced by the amount of harm done to us. If we are made to "pay" very little or nothing for our mistakes, we are unlikely to learn from them.

Q. 2. What's the best way to gain experience in life?

Answer: Well, in my opinion, the best way to gain experience is to conduct some experiments, take some calculated risks, and make some arbitrary decisions even when we know we will most likely "fail" in some real-life situations. And, as we conduct those small experiments or make arbitrary decisions, we can reflect on the outcomes or experiences, whether we succeed or fail, so that when we face similar situations in the future, we will know exactly what types of adjustments are required, if any at all, to achieve the best possible results. We will never know what we are good at if we never try, and we will never gain any experience if we never try.

Q. 3. Can we gain life experience from books and movies? Why/ Why not?

Answer: No, we cannot gain life experiences from books or movies because real-life situations must be lived to gain experience. Books and films, without a doubt, can present some true stories and experiences in a very rational and realistic manner. But, of course, the issue is that everyone in this world is unique, with unique mindsets, skills, abilities, and talents. As a result, just because one person experiences something in a specific situation does not always imply that another person will experience the same thing in the same way.

Q. 4. Which is more important, experience or potential? Why?

Answer: At any time of day, I believe that "experience" is more important than "potential." Experience usually indicates that a person has a track record of getting things done. Having experience, more often than not, gives someone confidence to do something challenging in adverse conditions. Furthermore, having experiences allows someone to make wise decisions, especially when faced with difficult choices. Finally, experience matures and respects a person, and as a result, others around him are confident enough to follow his lead. On the contrary, a person's "potential" is frequently unexplored and untested unless it is brought to work by an excellent mentor or our confidence.

Q. 5. What experience do you wish you had gained? Why do you think so?

Answer: Well, I am lucky that I really have some great experiences in my life, but more is always better. Isn't it? So, sometimes, I wish that I had the experience of traveling at least two to three countries from each continent to experience what this beautiful world has in store for us. Besides, I also want to write on my own travel experiences and my website, which I plan to launch shortly, and other travelers' experiences in my country. Besides, I wish to write about how good writers can tell their stories. 

Q. 6. Why do some people fail to learn from their experiences?

Answer: Some people fail to learn from their experience because they are too arrogant to understand they can also learn something from "anything" or "anybody." Then, some other people fail to learn from their experiences because the experiences are probably too "embarrassing" for them sometimes, and as a result, they don't like to remember any part of it. Finally, some people don't learn from their experiences because they want to "justify" them, no matter how "undesirable" the experiences are, by essentially blaming others for their own experiences and fate.


IELTS SPEAKING PART 3 IELTS Speaking Part 3 topic: Leadership and politics.

IELTS SPEAKING PART 3

IELTS Speaking Part 3 topic: Leadership and politics.

Q. 1. Do you think people are born to be leaders? Why/ Why not?

Answer: No, I don't believe that people are born leaders. Instead, leaders are formed by the circumstances in which they live and the people they wish to identify. To become a leader, one must have some unique skills and "abilities," which may or may not be inherited, but one must work hard to master those "skills and abilities." However, simply getting those skills and abilities is not enough; one must also put those skills and abilities to good use to overcome the right challenges at the correct times to be considered a "leader."

Q. 2. Can leadership skills be taught?Why/ Why not?

Answer: Yes, I believe that "leadership" skills, like any other, can be taught and learned because "leaders" are not a different breed of person, nor are they "born" as leaders. The difference between "perspective" leaders and others is that prospective leaders make a giant leap and are motivated to climb the success ladder to help others and lead in an organization where everyone else fails. Of course, some people are born with natural leadership abilities and qualities, but that doesn't mean that others can't achieve them through hard work and dedication.

Q. 3. Why are elected politicians often so unpopular?

Answer: Well, I can think of at least "trillions" of reasons why many elected officials are frequently unpopular. But I'll only mention a few of them here to spare the so-called politicians some "embarrassments" because they, of course, have no "shame." Oops! I appear to have just mentioned one of the reasons! To continue, politicians are frequently unpopular because they have "unparalleled" abilities to "lie" through their teeth as long as they are "awake." Finally, because they are often despised for being "financially corrupted," they will go to any length to oppress the poor and silence their "critics." They frequently fail to keep their promises to ordinary citizens and amass wealth in unethical ways.

Q. 4. What should a leader do to remain popular?

Answer: Remaining popular as a leader is a tricky business because the same factors that make them popular at one time can also make them unpopular at another. However, most of the time, a leader must understand the 'pulse' of their supporters. He must also be truthful about how he chooses to fight for the causes that he supports. Furthermore, a leader must ensure that he does not earn his living through corruption or "flexing" his muscle to remain popular. Finally, a politician must work hard to keep his promises to stay popular.

Q. 5. Do you think unelected heads of state are a good idea? Why/ Why not?

Answer: To be honest, putting unelected officials in charge of states is a great idea as long as there is solid transparency and accountability. Elections these days can be easily rigged, and as a result, the actual "winners" or elected officials may not be allowed to serve. However, it wouldn't be so bad if these elections didn't cost much money and time. Furthermore, we see a lot of violence during election times in some "developing" countries, dividing an entire nation.

Q. 6. In your opinion, what qualities a political leader should have?

Answer: To be a good political leader, a person must possess specific characteristics, such as patience, fairness, commitment, and the necessary educational qualifications to understand the various situation dynamics and positively arouse public passion. A political leader should also connect with his supporters personally to understand what makes them happy and what makes them unhappy. Finally, he must be truthful and dedicated to the causes of finding solutions to problems, not only for his supporters but also for those who oppose him.


IELTS SPEAKING PART1 LOST

IELTS SPEAKING PART1

LOST

1. What will you do if you find something lost by others?

If I find something that others have misplaced, I will most likely go to a police station and turn it in. After that, maybe I'll ask around the neighborhood shops if anyone is looking for this item, or I'll hand it to the bus driver when I get on.

2. Have you ever lost anything?

I rarely misplace things. But I once lost my house keys, forcing us to change locks, only to find them in my winter coat a year later. Since then, I've tried to keep my belongings in the exact locations. But, seriously, if you have a hole in one pocket, put your keys in the other. You will become anxious if you do not.

3. Will you post on social media if you lose your items?

It is dependent on the item. If I lose something I care about, I will undoubtedly post a note on social media. If I misplace something of little value, I may go to customer service or the police station. I believe in the power of social media and the public's honesty.


IELTS SPEAKING PART 2 Q-Describe a difficult decision that you once made what the decision was when you made the decision How long does it take you to make the decision?

IELTS SPEAKING PART 2

Q-Describe a difficult decision that you once made

what the decision was

when you made the decision

How long does it take you to make the decision?

and explain why it was a difficult decision to make

Making important decisions, in my opinion, is difficult because we gain and lose something when we make any decision. And, in today's world, I believe the increasing number of options makes decision-making even more difficult.

One of the most challenging decisions I had to make during my college education was deciding which stream to pursue. I was perplexed because I had no idea what each stream entailed.

After graduating from high school three years ago, I made the decision. Unlike many others, I never had a specific dream job as a child.

I used to want to be a doctor, and then there was a time when I wanted to be an astronaut. Then I tried to be an actor for a while. Finally, a few of my close friends aspired to be doctors.

It took me nearly a month to make up my mind. I was also concerned about losing my friends if I changed my major. However, everyone I asked for advice had a different point of view.

Because I polled too many people, making a decision became difficult. I only ask a few of my friends and parents for advice. Ultimately, my parents helped me make the decision. My parents asked me to take a two-day exam, testing my aptitude for different fields. After the test, they told me that two factors should be considered: my interests and strengths. I ignored everyone else's advice except the advice of my parents and my close friends. After making the decision, I should not regret the decision. Finally, I made my decision to opt for commerce.


IELTS SPEAKING PART 1 SHOES 1. How frequently do you buy shoes?

IELTS SPEAKING PART 1

SHOES

1. How frequently do you buy shoes?

I am a regular shopper. I go shopping once every two weeks or so. When the seasons change, I like to buy comfortable and fashionable shoes. So if I find a pair of stylish and affordable shoes, I will buy two pairs.

2. Where do you usually buy shoes?

I usually buy shoes at department stores, even during a pandemic. Of course, wearing face masks is necessary to battle the spread of the coronavirus when we are walking into the stores. After finding good-looking pairs, I always try them to make sure I feel comfortable.

3. What is your favorite type of shoes?

Flats are my favorite. I can pair them with most of my outfits and still look classy. They can be both comfortable and glamorous. Of course, I prefer to wear my heels at parties or any event. They work well with glamorous outfits.

4. Why do some people have too many shoes?

There could be several reasons for this. Some people, for example, will buy shoes whenever they see them on sale. Others may purchase them because they enjoy collecting shoes. As a result, shoes accumulate in their homes.

5. Have you ever bought shoes online?

Yes. I once bought shoes online. I bought one pair on my own; the quality is poor, and it does not fit my feet. The physical one did not resemble the image on the website. My sister experienced the same thing. After that, I avoid purchasing items online without doing extensive research. As a result, I prefer to buy shoes after trying them on.

6. Do you like wearing comfortable shoes or good-looking ones?

I like wearing shoes that are comfortable as well as good-looking. Appearance is the first thing I look for when I am buying shoes. I will keep my eye on the color design of the shoes if they match my outfits, and also, they are comfortable with my feet. However, comfort is more important to me. One will not carry oneself properly if one is not comfortable in their shoes. Therefore, I usually go for branded companies that ensure comfort with excellent looks. Crocs, for example, is comfortable yet unattractive. Consequently, I give up such pairs.

7. Are people willing to buy expensive shoes?

It is dependent on the individual. Wealthy people frequently prefer to buy expensive shoes. However, most people prefer to own better quality shoes than cheap ones, even slightly pricey.


IELTS SPEAKING PART LOST 1. What will you do if you find something lost by others?

IELTS SPEAKING PART

LOST

1. What will you do if you find something lost by others?

If I find something that others have misplaced, I will most likely go to a police station and turn it in. After that, maybe I'll ask around the neighborhood shops if anyone is looking for this item, or I'll hand it to the bus driver when I get on.

2. Have you ever lost anything?

I rarely misplace things. But I once lost my house keys, forcing us to change locks, only to find them in my winter coat a year later. Since then, I've tried to keep my belongings in the exact locations. But, seriously, if you have a hole in one pocket, put your keys in the other. You will become anxious if you do not.

3. Will you post on social media if you lose your items?

It depends on what the item is. I will undoubtedly post a note on social media if I lose something I love. If I lose small value things, perhaps I will go to the customer service or the police stations. I believe in the power of social media and the honesty of the public.


IELTS SPEAKING PART 1 WEEKENDS How do you spend your weekends?

IELTS SPEAKING PART 1

WEEKENDS

How do you spend your weekends?

On weekends, I usually spend time with my friends. We indulge in outdoor activities during the summers, while we do more indoor activities during the winters. We also play outdoor sports, visit museums, and go sightseeing.

  • Do you often listen to music?

In my spare time, I listen to music or do housework. However, I try not to listen to music while studying or working because it distracts me.

  • Do you prefer watching movies at home or the movie theatre?

Going to the movies is enjoyable. However, because there are so many options on OTT platforms, I also enjoy watching movies at home.

  • Have you always liked visiting museums?

I have always liked visiting museums since I appreciate art. Also, I get to know about things from the past.

  • Have you ever changed cities?

Yes, I have changed cities many times since my parents had transferable jobs. 

  • Have you ever been to an art gallery?

Yes, I have visited art galleries on numerous occasions. I enjoy art and enjoy spending time in art galleries on the weekends.

  • Has your taste in music changed over the years?

Yes, it has. Earlier I liked listening to Rock music a lot. However, now I prefer listening to classical music.

  • Do you have any hobbies that you would like to change into your job?

I want to keep these two separate. Practicing my hobbies every day can bring monotony and thus, become boring.

  • Do you want to learn any musical instrument?

I want to learn guitar someday. I have always found the tune of the guitar fascinating.

  • Do you prefer desktop or laptop?

I prefer using a laptop since it is portable. I can carry it while traveling. In addition, work becomes flexible with a computer.


IELTS SPEAKING PART 3 POLITICIAN

IELTS SPEAKING PART 3

POLITICIAN

  • What kinds of people are famous in your country?

My country is home to several well-known politicians, movie stars, and sports figures. Cricketers Sachin Tendulkar and MS Dhoni, actor Amitabh Bachchan, and our Prime Minister Narendra Modi are among them.

  • How are celebrities used for influencing public opinion?

Celebrities and influential people can increase the popularity of specific products or ideas. Furthermore, celebrities can use social media to reach out to their fans and enlist them in a campaign.

  • What kind of local businesses are there in your neighborhood?

My neighborhood abounds in grocery stores, hair salons, dry cleaners, restaurants, food stalls, and other small businesses.

  • Do you think the shopping malls affect the local businesses?

Yes, shopping malls siphon customers away from local businesses, gradually putting a financial burden on them.

  • What are the advantages of running a business?

Running a business has several advantages: supporting the local economy, providing products to the local population, financial independence, and generating employment. 

  • What should be the qualities of a business person to be successful in life?

A business person should be professional, courteous, honest, focused, customer-centric, and ambitious. 

  • What are the occasions that family members give gifts to one another in your country?

In my country, the occasions we exchange gifts include Diwali, Durga Puja, Christmas, Eid, and birthdays and anniversaries. 

  • What kind of gifts do children give to adults in their families?

The gifts may include greeting cards, handmade designs, plants, etc. For example, my siblings and I made cards for my parents and grandparents in my childhood.

  • How can hobbies positively influence people’s lives?

Hobbies can provide the much-needed ‘me time’ in our lives. They can give people a healthy outlet for their worries. For instance, when I feel stressed, I listen to music or go out for a walk.


IELTS SPEAKING PART 1 GOOD MEMORIZING

IELTS SPEAKING PART 1

GOOD MEMORIZING

1. Are you good at memorizing things?

Yes. I have an excellent memory. My memory becomes active when I am reading. Reading, I believe, is an excellent brain exercise that helps me improve my memorizing and remembering abilities.

2. Have you ever forgotten something important?

Yes, I have, and I believe it is part of being human. Nobody remembers everything perfectly all of the time. In my experience, the worst thing that happened to me because I couldn't remember something significant that happened two years ago. I forgot to check my passport's expiration date before purchasing a plane ticket, so I had to cancel it. As a result, I squandered my vacation days, and the flight cost increased. It was too expensive for me.

3. Why do some people have a good memory and others don't?

It may appear unfair, but it is true. Most intelligent people have a good memory and excellent brain functions, allowing them to recall information quickly. Those who aren't smart, on the other hand, often have difficulty remembering or identifying important information. I'm not sure, but I believe it's based on the person's gene and may have something to do with age. The sharper a person's memory, the younger he is. As a result, people tend to forget things quickly as they get older.

4. Why do more people rely on cell phones to remember things?

For years, I've relied on my smartphone to help me remember important dates or events. And I believe smartphones make our lives easier. Using a reminder app or setting the alarm on your phone has become the most reliable way to remember things, especially for simply forgetful people.


IELTS SPEAKING Talk about a TV drama series that you enjoy watching. You should say : what the central theme is who the main characters are why do you like it And explain how you discovered this TV series.

IELTS SPEAKING

Talk about a TV drama series that you enjoy watching.

You should say :

  • what the central theme is
  • who the main characters are
  • why do you like it

And explain how you discovered this TV series.

IELTS Sample Answer

Okay, so I've recently been watching "Power," a TV show about a guy who comes from a poor neighborhood and makes a lot of money selling drugs, and then he decides to go legit; he wants to leave his past behind and do a legitimate business with his nightclub Truth.

As a result, the series follows the difficulties he and his family face while attempting to get out of the drug business and make a legal living running clubs. It's not as simple as it sounds because all of his old friends are still trying to recruit him for drug trafficking, and there always seems to be some crisis or something that prevents the guy from simply making a clean break and starting over.

My friend recommended the series; I had never heard of it before, but I decided to give it a shot.

I watched a few episodes and enjoyed them. Each episode is well-paced, and the characters are interesting enough to keep your interest.

The plot is well-written, with just enough twists and turns to keep you guessing what will happen next.

Another thing I like about it is that the events are plausible; they aren't impossible scenarios like in some TV shows – you can imagine how such situations might occur in real life and how these people would deal with them.

So the main characters are a man named Jaimie, his wife Tasha, their two children, and Jaimie's ex-drug partner Tommy Egan, who is still involved in the drug trade.

Angela Valdez, a government lawyer who has an affair with Jaimie, is the other main character. She is a member of the special task force at the same time. It is attempting to charge Jaimie and Tommy with drug-related offenses.

Other characters who work in the club and other friends and contacts who repeatedly appear throughout the series appear in each episode.


IELTS SPEAKING PART 2 Talk about your favorite subject at school/university. You should say: what was the subject? What did you learn about? Why was it your favorite subject?

IELTS SPEAKING PART 2

Talk about your favorite subject at school/university.

You should say:

  • what was the subject?
  • What did you learn about?
  • Why was it your favorite subject?

Geography was my favorite subject in school. I once had a fantastic teacher who made everything seem very interesting. I also enjoyed learning about many different aspects of our lives, such as where we live, how weather affects us, farming, and other topics, and how we can learn so much from rocks, trees, and other items around us that can tell us about events that occurred thousands of years ago.

Many lessons about agriculture and how it developed in various parts of the world stick out in my mind. The distinction between farming needs in different parts of the world and how a product can be exported from one country to another.

I also recall learning about rock formations and how rivers can erode rock and the earth over time, changing the landscape. At the time, I thought it was fascinating how you could learn so much about something that appeared to be so simple.

My Geography classes taught me to see the world in a new light. For example, what was once just a river or a rock became much more enjoyable when I realized how much information it could tell us and how many different aspects there were to them.

 Even now, I think I still look at things and wonder what's beneath the surface, what's behind the visible parts, the parts we can't see or never think about. There is always so much more to it than what we see every day.

It was my favorite subject in school because it dealt with real-world issues. We learned about mountains, rivers, countries, populations, social migration, and many other topics. These things can be seen in everyday life; everything seems relevant.

I remember not liking Math as a school subject because I couldn't relate it to my daily life. Solving all those mathematical problems didn't seem relevant to real life.

Another reason I enjoyed Geography as a subject was because, as I previously stated, my teacher was excellent. She made everything seem exciting to her students and had a great way of explaining things to them. Because those classes were so interesting, the time seemed to fly by.


IELTS SPEAKING PART 1 1. Do you make plans every day?

IELTS SPEAKING PART 1

1. Do you make plans every day?

Yes. I use a time management app to organize my daily schedule and the upcoming week. I like to set reminders or mark special events on my calendar.

2. Do you make plans every day?

It's not difficult for me. I am a very organized person. As previously stated, I create my daily and weekly schedules on my phone and use a time management app to remind myself. So the pragmatic approach to task and time management works for me.

3. Do you think it's helpful to plan your time?

People say that planning your time improves work-life balance and happiness; good time management also reduces stress and allows you to achieve your goals quickly and easily. It is something I agree with.

4. Do you like being busy?

Although I quite enjoy being busy, having some downtime to relax and enjoy life is always needed. So, good time management is essential. I am happy I do it well.


IELTS SPEAKING PART 3 Topic: Reading Books. Q. 1: Do you generally read many books or prefer watching TV? Why?

IELTS SPEAKING PART 3

Topic: Reading Books.

Q. 1: Do you generally read many books or prefer watching TV? Why?

Answer: I prefer reading books to watching random television shows. However, this does not imply that I despise watching television. On the contrary, reading is a far superior habit to watching tv. Every book teaches us something new, and the time spent reading a book is more productive. I can't say the same for television. We frequently watch television to pass the time and end up flipping through channels rather than watching something meaningful.

Q. 2: What kind of books are considered good reads, in your opinion?

Answer: Books that are appropriate for the reader's age and do not contain any hate speech or offensive materials, in my opinion, are a good choice. In general, a book is a good read if it can pique readers' interest, make them think, or teach them something new. For me, a compelling story and character development are always essential indicators of a good read. However, I frequently enjoy books because they are educational and are based on actual events.

Q. 3: Do you think people read nowadays as they did in the past?

Answer: I believe that readers have always existed in our society and that those who enjoy reading books more than any other activity still exist. However, people's reading habits have evolved. We now have digital reading devices and the Internet to download and read any book we want. The younger generation appears to be more interested in technology than books these days. However, as I previously stated, we still have many readers who use technology to read books by their favorite authors. Online platforms also allow us to express ourselves more openly about writers and their works.

Q. 4: Do you regard famous writers as good role models?

Answer: In general, famous writers are better role models than politicians, celebrities, and athletes. We should, however, follow them through their writings, societal contributions, and good deeds, rather than the few who set bad examples in their personal lives. Writers have always inspired us, and they continue to do so in various ways. As a result, if we look to famous writers as role models, we will have more to gain than lose.

Q. 5: If a movie is based on a book, would you prefer to read the book or watch the film? Why?

Answer: I'd like to read the book and watch the movie. However, my personal experience has taught me that, in most cases, readers are superior to film. Watching a movie is more exciting to many people, and the film's interesting visual effects make it even more appealing. On the other hand, books can have a more significant impact on a reader than movies. While movies can bring entire worlds to life before our eyes, making characters come to life, books ignite our imagination and transport us to a world we are unfamiliar with. The journey allows us to feel each of the characters' experiences, leaving a lasting impression in our minds. So, while I may forego watching a few good book-based films, I would not want to miss out on those books.

Q. 6: How do our reading habits change as we grow up? Why does it happen?

Answer: We tend to read more as we get older, and our reading habits are based solely on our interests rather than academic requirements. We are so innocent in our childhood that a fairy tale can transport us to a beautiful mythical world. We aspire to be like the hero or heroine who possesses magical abilities to destroy evil. However, as we grow older, our minds mature and require more beneficial ingredients to be challenged and entertained. Thus, as adults, we aspire to be like a real-life heroes. However, rather than possessing a mysterious power, he has sheer willpower and determination to face challenges and change the world or the people around him.


IELTS SPEAKING PART 3 Topic: Universities. Q. 1: Is higher education too expensive in your country?

IELTS SPEAKING PART 3

 Topic: Universities.

Q. 1: Is higher education too expensive in your country?

Answer: In my country, government-run universities provide free higher education. Higher education at such a university is less expensive than at private universities. However, the number of students wishing to enroll in post-graduate courses far outnumbers the number of seats available at state-run universities and colleges. As a result, many students, primarily from wealthy families, are admitted to private universities and must pay exorbitant tuition fees.

Q. 2: Should all students pay for their university education? Why?

Answer: I believe that university costs should not be borne solely by students and their guardians. State-run universities must provide free education because the government funds the education sector, with a significant portion of the budget going to higher education and research facilities. Furthermore, the government is responsible for spending taxpayer dollars on social welfare, and free or low-cost education should be a top priority.

Q. 3: What advantages do universities bring to society? Is it the same in your country?

Answer: Universities are the social lighthouses that produce enlightened citizens who lead the country. Universities educate students, prepare them for the future, and conduct critical research that benefits society and the government. For example, we are familiar with many inventions and medicines developed due to university projects and research. Thus, universities serve both the community and the country in various ways directly related to a country's overall development. I am proud to say that universities do the same function in my country.

Q. 4: Which is more important, research or teaching? Why?

Answer: That's a difficult question to answer, in my opinion. I believe that both are required. While proper teaching ensures that young students receive the education they need to prepare for the future, research works, on the other hand, help solve practical problems and contribute to the country's advancement. As a result, more students and teachers should be involved in research projects at our universities.

Q. 5: How should students spend their summer vacations? How do/did you spend it?

Answer: Long vacations, in my opinion, should be used wisely. Because students have more than two months off during the summer, they should plan ahead of time to make the most of their time before the break. They can travel for one to two weeks, work in a paid job to gain practical experience, enroll in skill development courses, study subjects that interest them, and do some volunteer work for the community in which they live.

Q. 6: What are the advantages of private universities over public universities?

Answer: From my personal experience, private universities are more disciplined and update their curriculum frequently to make the course more beneficial. The study environment in a private university is often better as the authority does not allow politics or such activities there. Many private universities have better labs and research facilities, an added advantage. Since they finish the course within the speculated timeframe, they help students avoid session jams and start their careers early. Harvard, Yale, Stanford, and MIT are a few world-renowned private universities that have maintained an excellent academic environment and research works and show how some private universities could be better than many public universities.


IELTS Speaking Part 3 Topic: Historic Place. Q. 1: How do people in your country feel about protecting historic buildings?

IELTS Speaking Part 3 

Topic: Historic Place.

Q. 1: How do people in your country feel about protecting historic buildings?

Answer: I believe most people in my country want to protect and preserve important historic buildings, except a few who prioritize business over morality and rational thought. We had our moments in the past when people spontaneously protested the plan to demolish such sites. Due to a massive public backlash and outcry, the authority was forced to abandon its plan to build multi-story commercial buildings by destroying historic structures. As a result, citizens in my country are concerned about preserving anything of historical significance.

Q. 2: Do you think an area can benefit from having an interesting historic place locally? In what way?

Answer: Certainly, an area with a fascinating historic site can benefit from various perspectives. For starters, such a location would attract many tourists and aid in the growth of other local businesses. Furthermore, such areas are strategically important for the local government, attracting additional development projects to the site. Moreover, the government takes extra precautions to protect such areas from natural disasters, increasing attention. Furthermore, the area's thriving tourism spreads local customs and traditions to other parts of the country. As a result, the development of such a region is faster than in other areas.

Q. 3. What do you think will happen to historic places or buildings in the future? Why?

Answer: That isn't easy to predict, and it would all depend on future generations. If they believe that such locations and buildings are important enough to preserve, the authority will take steps to safeguard them. Otherwise, many of them, less well-known internationally, would be demolished and replaced by ultramodern commercial structures. On the other hand, Prominent sites would be preserved to attract many international tourists. Some will be rendered inoperable due to a lack of maintenance, while a few new ones will emerge as historical sites and buildings in the distant future. Some historical sites and facilities will close because they are no longer popular and cannot sell tickets to tourists. As a result, the authority or owner wishes to convert them for business purposes.

Q. 4: How were you taught history when you were at school?

Answer: Our teachers mainly taught us history from textbooks, but we were fortunate to have a few fantastic teachers who explained why history is essential for understanding the future. They frequently explained critical historical events and characters and how powerful men shaped future events. In addition, we were required to read history books and watch documentaries about actual historical events that were not covered in our curriculum. As a result, we were able to learn more about history. Furthermore, our school administration took us to various museums and historic sites two to three times a year. Those excursions allowed us to learn more about the history and see artifacts from the past.

Q. 5: Are there other ways people can learn about history, apart from school? How?

Answer: Reading about history and researching it online, in my opinion, is the best way to learn more about it. What we know in school about history is only the beginning. To truly explore the past, we must read many books, and the books should be chosen based on the readers' interests. The Internet is a fantastic tool for learning about our past, and the interactive videos available on various websites are especially useful. It provides us with the opportunity to delve deeper into history. Finally, traveling is a fantastic way to learn about the world we live in and how different civilizations shaped it. Someone who travels extensively learns about history more quickly and witnesses history rather than assuming it.

Q. 6: Do you think history will still be a school subject in the future? Why?

Answer: I believe that history is more than just a collection of past events, civilizational stories, and powerful characters. It is, instead, a way of looking into the future. As a result, the importance of history will grow in the future, and more students will be interested in learning about it than they are now. We have yet to realize history's full potential, and it is still a subject for weaker students. However, we will recognize how critical it is for people to learn to have a prosperous future. So I don't see why history should be removed from the school curriculum.


IELTS SPEAKING PART 3 Topic: Sports and competition. Q. 1: Why are some sports fans so passionate?

IELTS SPEAKING PART 3

Topic: Sports and competition.

Q. 1: Why are some sports fans so passionate?

Answer: Some people, I believe, prefer sports to other forms of entertainment and competition, and they always watch their favorite sports on television. Their favorite pastime is 'watching and playing sports,' Many ardent fans were once players themselves and played the game in their youth. When a goal is scored, or a game is won, they see their family, friends, and city go wild. As a result, it's natural for people to emulate others' enthusiasm and root for their local teams. Such attachment frequently increases their enthusiasm for sports. For example, many young people are die-hard football fans in my country with favorite teams.

Q. 2: Is there any violence at sporting events in your country?

Answer: In general, such violence is sporadic in my country. On the other hand, disagreement among fans is pretty standard, and most of the time, it is verbal rather than physical. They frequently use social networking sites and blogs to criticize their competitors. However, I recall a regrettable incident that occurred probably three or four years ago when the fans of two competing teams became agitated. Three people died due to this incident, while several others were critically injured. The stadium's security has been improved to deal with such unexpected events, and hopefully, it won't happen again.

Q. 3. Should athletes be better role models?

Answer: I believe most fans start adoring an athlete or a sportsperson due to the spectacular performance they show. Thus football magicians like Cristiano Ronaldo or Lionel Messi have several million fans, and many of them started idolizing them without knowing them personally. However, when these youths start following their favorite sportspeople or athletes, they sometimes follow them blindly. Thus considering the impact, famous sports personalities should always try to lead exemplary lives as thousands of others mimic them. They are also noted, and the media is always watching them. Any bad conduct can bring controversy to their fame. Therefore, they should try to become better role models for youths as it is a social and moral responsibility of any celebrity.

Q. 4. What benefits do international sporting events bring?

Answer: International sporting events unite nations and reduce tension and hostility. Such an event goes viral and can be an excellent reason for people to come to the stadium to watch the competition. As a result, such competitions promote tourism and help local businesses thrive. Furthermore, such prestigious events can sometimes inspire young children worldwide to participate in sports. This is beneficial for spreading the essence of sports worldwide, and I believe sports have economic, political, and cultural effects on society.

Q. 5. Is it essential for a country to win lots of medals?

Answer: I believe every country wants to win as many trophies as possible since it represents how great a nation is in sports and athleticism. Being at the top of the medallist is often considered an outstanding achievement, but it is unnecessary. Participating in international sporting events like the Olympics is constantly inspiring for many small nations. A few medals could often be satisfying and inspiring for them. An essential thing in international sporting competition is performing and enjoying it, not the number of awards won. When athletes and sportspeople from all around the world gather at a common platform, they represent their own country and the whole of humanity, which is essential for maintaining global peace and harmony.

Q. 6. The money professional athletes earn is significantly higher than that of other professionals. Is it justified?

Answer: I believe that only a few fortunate sports celebrities make a lot of money, while most do not. In my opinion, the pay is justified given the training, dedication, challenge, and sacrifice that are a part of their lives. We must keep in mind that their careers are brief and they succeed because they perform well. The pay for those celebrities is high because people buy tickets to see them serve, and various companies that make millions of dollars every day want them to be brand ambassadors. I don't mind if they make a lot of money because these payments are legitimate and transparent.


IELTS SPEAKING Topic - "Your neighborhood." Q. Do you like the neighborhood you live in? [Why/Why not?]

IELTS SPEAKING 

Topic - "Your neighborhood."

Q. Do you like the neighborhood you live in? [Why/Why not?]

Answer: Yes, I like my neighborhood, mainly because I've lived here for a long time and everything is familiar. Furthermore, this is a relatively clean neighborhood with well-planned houses and homes. Finally, I like my area because the people are mostly friendly.

Q. What do you do in your neighborhood in your free time? [Why/Why not?]

Answer: To be honest, I don't have much free time to do anything outside these days because I spend so much time at work. However, whenever I have some free time, I try to greet good neighbors I know. I also try to attend social events in my neighborhood when free, such as birthday parties or picnics. In addition, I occasionally participate in volunteer work to assist others or keep our neighborhood clean and green.

Q. What new things would you like to have in your neighborhood [Why/Why not?]

Answer: Without a doubt, my neighborhood is a beautiful place to live, with everything from lovely and broad streets to clean ponds and lakes. However, it would be nice to have new things, such as a large swimming pool and a large playground for the kids, to make my neighborhood a better place to live.

Q. Would you like to live in another neighborhood in your town or city? [Why/Why not?]

Answer: Without a doubt, my neighborhood is a beautiful place to live, with everything from lovely and broad streets to clean ponds and lakes. However, it would be nice to have new things, such as a large swimming pool and a large playground for the kids, to make my neighborhood a better place to live.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Nowadays, many people interacting with each other has changed because of technology. In what ways has technology affected the types of relationships people make? Has this become a positive or negative development? -Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Nowadays, many people interacting with each other has changed because of technology. In what ways has technology affected the types of relationships people make? Has this become a positive or negative development?

-Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

MODEL Answer 1:

There is no doubt that many things have changed in the last few decades; some changes have been for the better, while others have been for the worse. The way people interact and communicate is one of the areas where technology has had a significant impact.

Without a doubt, technology has altered the way we live our lives, and these changes have become more noticeable in the last decade. There are several improvements in life due to the positive effects of technology, but there are also some adverse effects. How we communicate and maintain relationships today is one area that has changed dramatically. And in my opinion, technology has improved our communication and how we form and maintain relationships. Despite some negative consequences, most of us appreciate the benefits that technology has brought us. In the past, there were few ways to interact. Use your imagination; if you want to speak with your friend, you must go directly to his house or send him a message, which may take several days to receive a response. Finally, technology has a significant tangible impact on our communication. Nowadays, it is simple to communicate with your relatives – and even with the government and organizations – via email, mobile phones, chatting, and so on. This, I believe, has improved and enhanced relationships.

We no longer need to visit a relative or friend to get the latest information. Alternatively, we can immediately notify them of our updates. Official and business communications, in addition to personal contacts, have become more accessible. Email campaigns provide a good marketing opportunity for business owners, and people can use emails to complain about something without revealing their identity. However, not everyone has access to technology and must rely on traditional modes of communication. People can now deceive others by using identity theft and identity fraud. In some cases, the personal touch of communication, such as handwritten letters and face-to-face communication, was more effective. For example, meeting your friend is still more important than simply emailing him.

We make so many friends through chatting or social networking, which would not be possible without technological advancement and its contribution to communication. Cell phones, emails, and social networking have improved communication, and we can now communicate with anyone at a low cost. It's now common to plan a visit, or even several visits, to relatives and friends on the same day, whereas in the past, this could have taken weeks or months.

To summarise, despite all of this, I still see some flaws in the development of interaction methods. For example, consider the extraordinarily high cost of communication that each person incurs daily. Another drawback is that many older people are not accustomed to modern technology. However, this does not negate the positive impact technology has had on human interaction, and I believe these flaws are easily remedied.

others. Most advantages may be shared by both government and commercial organizations.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Some people think that parents should teach children how to be good members. Others, however, believe that school is the place to learn this. Discuss both views and give your opinion. -Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Some people think that parents should teach children how to be good members. Others, however, believe that school is the place to learn this.

Discuss both views and give your opinion.

-Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience.

 Answer-

It is widely held that parents should teach their children how to be good members of society, but there is a strong counter-argument that school is the best place to learn. However, this subject needs to be debated in light of several factors before any conclusions can be drawn.

It is widely assumed that parents should guide their children's interactions with society. This is primarily because children will obey the words of their parents rather than the words of their teachers. We can see that the parents are the first teachers in many books. Parents should instill respect, obedience, and honesty in their children. Parents should teach those qualities to their children at a young age to plant them in their children. For example, my uncle's daughter is only in fifth grade, but she respects older adults because their parents taught her the steps she must instill in her.

Education begins at home, and what is learned in childhood becomes a part of a person's personality and characteristics. As a result, what children learn from their parents has a long-lasting impact on people. As a result, parents must exercise caution when instilling moral values and societal responsibilities in their children. Children, by nature, mimic their family members; thus, parents can teach their children how to be good community members by performing their duties correctly. Most children obey their parents more than anyone else, so their parents' instructions have a better chance of being followed. Because of their ever-increasing business outside the home, not all parents can spend enough time with their children, and teachers play an essential role for those students. Some students pay attention to their teachers and follow their written laws. As a result, teachers can help children learn morals and responsibilities.

On the other hand, certain groups of people are adamant that school is the best place to learn how to be good members. One of the reasons for this viewpoint is that children nowadays do not have enough time to spend with their parents because both parents may be employed or keep their child in a hostel. Therefore, children will learn education in school. The school must also incorporate these characteristics into the course structure so that the child can follow them.

Thus, it is clear from all discussions that both arguments are equally solid and significant, and neither can be refuted entirely. As a result, I believe that school is the best place to learn how to be good members of society.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Some people say that school children should be mainly taught about their own country's literature (e.g., fiction and poetry) because it is more critical than other countries. To what extent do you agree?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Some people say that school children should be mainly taught about their own country's literature (e.g., fiction and poetry) because it is more critical than other countries.

To what extent do you agree?

Many people believe that learning about literature from one's own country is more important than learning from other countries. I completely agree with this point of view because literature can help people understand their country and themselves.

The most crucial reason for exposing children to literature from their own country is to broaden their understanding. In America, for example, young students study a standard curriculum that includes authors such as Dr. Seuss, Shel Silverstein, and Harper Lee. Dr. Seuss and Shel Silverstein's books convey individualism, creativity, and entrepreneurship principles critical to understanding America's history and present. Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird is an excellent example of a book about racial segregation that can help students better understand recent events surrounding the Black Lives Matter movement. Learning about racism from a classic novel set in the United States is more likely to engage, inform, and stimulate a relevant response.

Another reason students should be well-versed in their national literature is because it will help shape their identity at an impressionable age. Children will form their identities through various sources, including literature from other countries. This is a positive step forward. However, the primary influence should come from their own country to represent their nationality. For example, a Japanese child raised abroad may return to Japan and feel alienated. One way to combat this is to understand Japanese poetry and fiction. Japan's distinct minimalist tradition will have an impact on classical poetry. In addition, the novels will teach readers about interpersonal relationships and the various levels of formality expected in Japanese society.

In conclusion, children will better understand and have their identity firmly shaped by the literature of their home country. This is becoming increasingly important in a globalized world that threatens to blur the distinctions between nationalities into a single monoculture.


IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Plagiarism in academics has become a pressing problem in many countries today. What are the causes of this problem? What are some possible solutions?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Plagiarism in academics has become a pressing problem in many countries today.

What are the causes of this problem?

What are some possible solutions?

Plagiarism has emerged as a severe problem in academic circles in recent decades. The primary causes of this revolve around disseminating information to countries with differing attitudes toward intellectual property rights, and the solutions are strict penalties for plagiarised works.

Plagiarism is not considered offensive or treated lightly in many countries. Students in Vietnam, for example, grow up in an environment where copyright is essentially just for show. It is common for photocopy shops to print or copy entire books without fear of legal repercussions. Many students are taught in school to memorize and reproduce the works of others and are forbidden from coming up with their ideas. The rise of Facebook, which hardly polices intellectual property rights, has resulted in even more lawlessness.

The best way to deal with plagiarism is to impose varying degrees of punishment. Those who blatantly copy and paste works and pass them off as their own for commercial gain should face complete criminal and civil prosecution. This will keep the most extreme cases to a minimum. Sharing and posting materials on the internet is more difficult because perpetrators do not always receive direct financial benefits and can be challenging to locate. In these cases, websites like Facebook must police their users and issue warnings and bans to repeat offenders.

To summarise, the relevant threat of plagiarism requires both companies and countries to collaborate to limit any potential damage. Furthermore, this issue will only become more challenging to resolve, so preventive measures should be implemented.



IELTS WRITING TASK 2 Q-Some believes that tourism creates tension between countries rather than helping individuals better understand other cultures. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

IELTS WRITING TASK 2

Q-Some believes that tourism creates tension between countries rather than helping individuals better understand other cultures.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

MODEL ANSWER 

Many people believe that tourism exacerbates rather than alleviates tensions between countries. However, despite some newsworthy incidents, the vast majority of tourist interactions, in my opinion, are favorable.

Because of the naturally occurring outstanding disputes, many people have turned against tourism as a means of soft power. The recent Coronavirus outbreak in China and the ensuing worldwide panic are excellent examples of this. Chinese tourists have reported increased harassment and cold treatment abroad on social media. Such reactions are irrational because Coronavirus is a minor threat compared to common influenza strains, various diseases, and other fatalities over the period, including vehicular deaths. This psychological bias also applies to small-scale tourist interactions: people are more likely to recall recent, adverse events, even if their impact is minor.

The vast majority of interactions between tourists and locals are pleasant and conducive to better understanding. For example, the average person traveling to most countries will encounter friendly customs officials chatting with their taxi driver on the way to their hotel, where the staff will most likely be very accommodating. Negative interactions are uncommon, but they can make for exciting stories. The more likely scenario is that tourists' curiosity will be met by locals' eagerness to make a good impression of themselves and their country. These complimentary human drives from the tourist and local, re-enacted in millions of micro-interactions daily, may not make headlines. Still, they foster empathy and understanding between otherwise diverse cultures.

To summarise, the cumulative impact of friendly encounters brought about by tourism far outweighs exaggerated slights. People should keep this in mind and overcom